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Writing Names and Formulas for Compounds

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Naming A-metal compounds
If a formula has an A-metal in it, it is an A-metal compound. These include the metals in family I, II, and some in III (for example, aluminum) Rules for naming A-metal compounds: Ex. LiF 1) Write the name of the metal (lithium) 2) write the name of the non-metal, changing the ending to –ide (fluoride) The name would therefore be lithium fluoride

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A-metal practice magnesium chloride MgCl2 NaBr AlN K3N Ca3P2
sodium bromide aluminum nitride potassium nitride calcium phosphide

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All non-metals and their proper -ide ending
nitride oxide fluoride phosphide sulfide chloride arsenide selenide bromide telluride iodide astatide

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Writing formulas for A-metal compounds
Ex. magnesium fluoride ( teacher will review Lewis formula way first) Oxidation number = the charge on an ion Steps Write the symbol for the metal (Mg) Determine the ox. Number/charge on it (+2)- so overall you will write: Mg+2 Do the same for the non-metal ion: F-1

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Continued… NO! it overall would be +1, not neutral.
So far we have Mg+2 and F-1 Remember that all ionic compounds are overall. (+ and – = zero overall) Neutral 4) The final step is to add enough ions of each to make the compound neutral overall. Would a compound containing one magnesium ion (with a +2 charge) and one fluoride ion (with a –1) charge be neutral overall? NO! it overall would be +1, not neutral.

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Continued… Mg+2 and F-1 – this is where we left off
How many fluoride ions would the formula need to be neutral overall? TWO! Thus the formula should be… MgF Mg+2 F-1 F-1 = 0

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Writing formulas for A-metal Let’s Try Another
Ex. aluminum bromide Write the symbols: Al Br Determine the charges: Al+3 Br -1 Add enough of both ions to make it neutral What will the formula be? AlBr3

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Writing formulas for A-metal Let’s Try Another
Ex. lithium oxide Symbols?: Li O Charges?: Li+1 O-2 Formula? Li2O

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Practice writing formula of A-metal compounds
Try these on your own calcium oxide calcium fluoride sodium nitride

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Practice answers Ex. calcium oxide Symbols with charges: Ca+2 O-2 CaO
Formula?

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Practice answers Ex. calcium fluoride Symbols with charges: Ca+2 F-1
Formula? CaF2

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Practice answers Ex. sodium nitride Symbols with charges: Na+1 N-3
Formula? Na3N

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Try this one- it’s tougher
Ex. aluminum oxide Symbols with charges: Al+3 O-2 What will the formula be? Hint: more than one of each is needed. Try having two of the odd charged ion. (Al is the odd charge) Al+3 Al+3= +6 charge total: -6 is now needed O-2 O-2 O-2 = -6 charge =0 Thus the formula is Al2O3

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Another tough one.. Thus the formula is Mg3P2 Ex. Magnesium phosphide
Symbols with charges: Mg+2 P-3 What will the formula be? Try starting with two of the odd charge. P-3 P = -6 Mg+2 Mg+2 Mg+2 = +6 Thus the formula is Mg3P2

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Let’s finish up A-metals…
Try these tough ones on your own beryllium nitride aluminum sulfide strontium arsenide * iron II sulfide

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Practice answers Ex. beryllium nitride Symbols with charges: Be+2 N-3
Formula?

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Practice answers Ex. aluminum sulfide Symbols with charges: Al+3 S-2
Formula?

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Practice answers Ex. strontium arsenide Symbols with charges:
Sr+2 As-3 Formula? Sr3As2

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Naming Compounds when given the formula

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Let’s take the first one slowly…
Ex. Lithium oxide The metals person should play (lay down) One card with Li+1 on it. The non-metals person should then lay one O-2 card to the left of the first card. Decide if one of each ion makes this compound neutral… If not, add the appropriate amount of cards Which element needs another ion? The formula would therefore be… Li2O

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Writing Formulas: A-metals
Lithium Fluoride Sodium chloride Magnesium oxide Calcium Fluoride Magnesium chloride Aluminum fluoride Lithium nitride LiF NaCl MgO CaF2 MgCl2 AlF3 Li3N

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Writing Formulas- T-metals
Copper I chloride Copper II chloride Titanium II fluoride Titanium IV Fluoride Iron II oxide Iron III nitride Copper I Sulfide CuCl CuCl2 TiF2 TiF4 FeO FeN Cu2S

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Writing Formulas- tougher ones
Calcium phosphide Magnesium nitride Aluminum sulfide Iron III oxide (rust) Titanium II oxide Titanium IV sulfide Titanium IV phosphide Ca3P2 Mg3N2 Al2S3 Fe2O3 TiO TiS2 Ti3P4

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Writing names: A-metals
LiF lithium fluoride sodium sulfide Na2S LiCl Lithium chloride CaO calcium oxide aluminum sulfide Al2S3 Mg3P2 magnesium phosphide

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Naming T-metal compounds
Ex. TiO2 Note: All names will contain a roman numeral The Roman numeral will be the charge on each T-metal (see middle of PC) The charge will always be positive **The key to naming T-metals is to determine the charge on the T-metals**.

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Naming T-metal compounds
Ex. TiO2 Rules for naming T-metals 1) Rewrite the formula for the compound Ti O2 2) Write the charge of the non-metal Ti O2-2 3) Determine the charge on the T-metal… a) first determine the total negative charge O-2 O-2 = -4 total… so +4 total needed to be neutral b) Determine the plus charge on each T-metal. TiO2- this formula only has 1 Ti and 2 oxygens O-2 O-2 = -4 / Ti+? = 0 Ti+4

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Naming T-metal compounds
So far we have… Ti+4 O2-2 The roman numeral in the name of this compound is determined by the on the T-metal. charge Thus the name will be… Titanium oxide IV Remember, the + charge = the Roman numeral

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Let’s do another +6 needed -6 total Ex. Ni2S3
Write formula – show the non-metal’s charge: Ni2 S3-2 Find the total negative (-) charge: Find the charge on each (+) ion Two Ni S Ni+? Ni+? +3 S -2 S –2 THE FASTER WAY -6 total +6 total +? +6 needed Ni2 S3-2 Name? Nickel sulfide +3 on each Ni -6 total III Name? Nickel sulfide III

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Here’s another… +14 needed -14 total Ex. Cr2O7
Write formula with non-metal’s charge: Cr2O7-2 Find the total negative (-) charge: O -2 O -2 O -2 O –2 O –2 O –2 O –2 Find the charge on each (+) ion Cr+? Cr+? +7 THE FASTER WAY +14 -14 +? +14 needed Cr2 O7-2 -14 total Name? chromium oxide +7 on each Cr VII Name? chromium oxide VII

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Here’s another… -2 total +2 needed Ex. Au2S
Write formula with non-metal’s charge: Au2S-2 Find the total negative (-) charge: Charge on each (+) ion: Au+? Au+? +1 THE FASTER WAY S -2 +2 -2 +? -2 total +2 needed Au2 S-2 Name? gold sulfide +1 on each Au I Name? gold sulfide I

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Here’s another… fast way only
Ex. Fe2O3 Write formula with non-metal’s charge: Fe2O3-2 Find the total negative (-) charge: Find the charge on each (+) ion +6 -6 +? Fe2 O3-2 +3 on each Fe Name? iron oxide III

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Here’s another… fast way only
Ex. Cr2N4 Write formula with non-metal’s charge: Cr2N4-3 +12 -12 +? Cr2N4-3 +6 on each Cr Name? chromium nitride VI

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Here’s another… fast way only
Ex. Fe2O3 Fe2O3-2 Find the total negative (-) charge: Find the charge on each (+) ion +6 -6 +? Fe2 O3-2 Jump to activity Writing NAMES +3 on each Fe Name? iron oxide III

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Writing formulas for T-metal compounds
Ex. Iron III oxide Rules Write the symbols for both elements Write the charges for both elements Determine how many of each is needed for the compound to be neutral. A) try having two of the odd charge Fe O Fe+3 O-2 Formula? Fe +3 Fe+3 = +6; so –6 is needed Fe2O3 O-2, 0-2, O-2 = -6

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Practice Writing formulas for T-metals
Titanium II oxide Write symbols with charges: Ti+2 O-2 Determine formula: TiO Cobalt IV oxide: Symbols/charges: Co +4 O -2 CoO2 Formula?

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Writing names T-metals
FeO iron II oxide nickel II chloride NiCl2 TiO2 titanium IV oxide Cu2O3 copper III oxide chromium II fluoride CrF2 Co2S Cobalt I sulfide

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Writing names: mixed metals
AlCl3 aluminum chloride cobalt III nitride CoN Fe2O3 iron III oxide CaS calcium sulfide nickel II oxide NiO Cr2O5 chromium V oxide

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Naming formulas mixed metals
Cu2O copper I oxide Potassium phosphide K3P Cr2N4 Chromium VI nitride MgF2 Magnesium fluoride nickel III phosphide NiP Ti2S Titanium I sulfide

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Activity last page: Naming formulas mixed-metals
Ti2S4 titanium IV sulfide potassium sulfide K2S FeN3 Iron IX nitride Cr2O7 Chromium VII oxide aluminum oxide Al2O3 Fe2P6 Iron IX oxide

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Naming Covalent compounds
Covalent compounds contain non-metals only So….. the first element in the formula will be a non-metal! Use prefixes to state how many atoms of each element there are Remember, there are no charges in covalent compounds (electrons are shared).

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Naming Covalent compounds
Here are the prefixes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 mono di tri tetr(a) pent(a) hex(a) hept(a) oct(a) non(a) dec(a)

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Naming Covalent compounds
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 mono di tri tetr(a) pent(a) hex(a) hept(a) oct(a) non(a) dec(a) Rules for naming: Be sure the compound only has non- metals before using prefixes Use prefixes* to state how many atoms there are of each element * never start a name with “mono” Ex. CO2 1 carbon/ 2 oxygens *carbon dioxide

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Naming Covalent compounds
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 mono di tri tetr(a) pent(a) hex(a) hept(a) oct(a) non(a) dec(a) N20 dinitrogen monoxide CO carbon monoxide OF2 oxygen difluoride CF4 carbon tetrafluoride

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Naming Covalent compounds
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 mono di tri tetr(a) pent(a) hex(a) hept(a) oct(a) non(a) dec(a) If the letter “a” and “o” are side by side (ao), drop the “a” Example: N2O5 dinitrogen pentaoxide becomes… dinitrogen pentoxide: (drop the a) P4O10 tetraphosphorus decaoxide tetraphosphorus decoxide

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Writing formulas for covalent compounds
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 mono di tri tetr(a) pent(a) hex(a) hept(a) oct(a) non(a) dec(a) Easy!!!!! DO NOT try to use charges to figure it out. The prefixes will indicate how many of each element you need. Ex. diphosphorus monoxide P2O nitrogen trifluoride NF3 dicarbon tetrachloride C2Cl4

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THE WONDERFULLY AWFUL POLYATOMIC ions
Here are some common polyatomic ions we will use: Note that each has a charge on it overall. Each one is made of many atoms.

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THE WONDERFULLY AWFUL POLYATOMIC ions
NH ammonium C2H3O2-1 acetate ClO chlorate OH hydroxide NO nitrate CO3-2 carbonate CrO4-2 chromate SO sulfate PO phosphate

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THE WONDERFULLY AWEFUL POLYATOMICS
NH ammonium C2H3O2-1 acetate ClO chlorate OH hydroxide NO nitrate CO3-2 carbonate CrO4-2 chromate SO sulfate PO phosphate Although polyatomics are large and look strange- they are not difficult. Use the same rules that you always have. No extra learning is required. Treat them like one big single element.

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Naming compounds with polyatomics…
There are no new rules! If you have more than one polyatomic, simply use parentheses. Ex (ClO3-1)2: this is how to show two chlorates. Mg(ClO3)2- name this compound. Mg is an A-metal: use A-metal rules. Magnesium chlorate

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Naming compounds with polyatomics…
Cr(SO4)2 name this compound. Cr is a T-metal: use T-metal rules. Chromium IV sulfate (NH4)3P Ammonium is always +1 Treat it like an A metal Ammonium phosphide Cu(NO3)2 Copper II nitrate

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Writing Formulas with polyatomics…
No new rules! Just be sure it is neutral overall Ex. Potassium sulfate Potassium is an A-metal… K2SO4 Calcium nitrate… Ca(NO3)2

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Writing Formulas with polyatomics…
Titanium IV carbonate- write the formula Ti(CO3)2 Iron VI phosphate Fe(PO4)2 Gold I chromate Au2CrO4 **Nickel II hydroxide Ni(OH)2

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Acids: Names and formulas
Key ideas You will know a compound is an acid by the fact that the formula ALWAYS STARTS WITH H (hydrogen). (ex. H2S.) Use oxidation numbers (charges) as you have with ionic compounds when figuring out the formula for an acid. (It’s done the same way) All acids will have a name with the ending “ic”, then the word “acid”. (ex. Hydrochloric acid) SOMETIMES an acid will have “hydro” at the beginning of its name, but not always… a. If the acid has a polyatomic ion in it, then “hydro” will not be at the beginning of the name. (ex. HClO3: ClO3 is a polyatomic ion- so the name will be chloric acid (no “hydro”). b. Hydro begins the name if the formula has hydrogen and only one other single element present (in other words, when there isn’t a polyatomic present/ HCl = hydrochloric acid ). You may find it helpful to use the “long/short” method for names and formula. If the name compound is long, then the formula is short (no polyatomic). If the name of the compound is short, then the formula is long (polyatomic) If the formula is short, then the name is long (“hydro” is needed) If the formula is long, then the name is short (“hydro” not needed).

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Acids continued Examples: H2S = hydrosulfuric acid
(note: this one only has hydrogen and one other element present, so “hydro” is needed; it does not have a polyatomic/note the formula is “short”, so the name is long) H2SO4 = sulfuric acid (note: this one has a polyatomic ion, no need for “hydro”/note the formula is long, so the name is short) Phosphoric acid = H3PO4 (used oxidation numbers to get the formula) (Name short- formula long) Hydrophosphoric acid = (long name- short formula) Remember… Long/short method of naming acids and writing acid formulas Acid formulas If the name of the acid is long…… the formula will be short (no polyatomic) If the name of the acid is short….. the formula will be long (with a polyatomic) Acid names If the formula is short…. the name will be long (will contain “hydro”) If the formula is long…. the name will be short (will not contain hydro)

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Practice mini quiz Name the following 1) Mg(ClO3)2 2) *Co3(PO4)2
Write the formulas 5) Lithium phosphate 6) Iron II carbonate 7) Aluminum chromate 8) Titanium IV sulfate 9) Titanium IV sulfide Name the following 1) Mg(ClO3)2 2) *Co3(PO4)2 3) K2SO4 4) Cu(C2H3O2)3 *This is Cobalt not carbonate (lower case o not O as is oxygen)

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Practice mini quiz Name the following 1) Mg(ClO3)2 2) *Co3(PO4)2
3) K2SO4 4) Cu(C2H3O2)3 Answers 1) Magnesium chlorate 2) Cobalt II phosphate 3) Potassium sulfate 4) Copper III acetate *This is Cobalt not carbonate (lower case o nor O as is oxygen)

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Practice mini quiz answers 5) Li3PO4 6) FeCO3 7) Al2(CrO4)3
Write the formulas 5) Lithium phosphate 6) Iron II carbonate 7) Aluminum chromate 8) Titanium IV sulfate 9) Titanium IV sulfide answers 5) Li3PO4 6) FeCO3 7) Al2(CrO4)3 8) Ti(SO4)2 9) TiS2

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Bell work: date: Name the following [1) K2CrO4 2) Fe(PO4)2
3) Al2(SO4)3 4) Cu2CO3 Write the formulas 5) sodium phosphate 6) Titanium II carbonate 7) Magnesium acetate 8) copper IV sulfate]

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Bell work: Date: Box final answer. Name the following [1) HF 2) HClO3
3) HI 4) H3PO4 Write the formulas 5) Hydroselenic acid 6) Nitric acid 7) Hydrosulfuric acid 8) Chromic acid

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Acids- mini quiz Box final answer. Name the following 1) H2CrO4 2) HCl
3) H3PO4 4) H2S Write the formulas 5) Hydroiodic acid 6) Nitric acid 7) Hydrosulfuric acid 8) Carbonic acid

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Acids- mini quiz II Box final answer. Name the following 1) H2S
2) H2CO3 3) HNO3 4) HBr Write the formulas 5) Hydroiodic acid 6) acetic acid 7) phosphoric acid 8) hydrochloric acid

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All Compounds- mini/warm-up
1) calcium chloride 2) carbonic acid 3) iron IV sulfide 4) carbon dioxide 5) nickel III oxide 6) H2S 7) TiS2 8) Sr(NO3)2 9) Cl4O7 10) AlBr3 Box final answer. 1) CaCl2 2) H2CO3 3) FeS2 4) CO2 5) Ni2O3 6) hydrosulfuric acid 7) titanium IV sulfide 8) strontium nitrate 9) tetrachloride heptoxide 10) aluminum bromide

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Bellwork: date: All Compounds- warm up!
Box final answer. Name the following [1) CuS2 2) HClO3 3) Ni3P 4) CO2 Write the formulas 5) sulfuric acid 6) nickel IV sulfate 7) dicarbon trifluoride 8) aluminum chromate]

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Bellwork: date: Test Warm-up
1) calcium chloride 2) carbonic acid 3) iron IV sulfide 4) nitrogen dioxide 5) nickel III oxide 6) H2S 7) TiS2 8) Sr(NO3)2 9) Cl4O7 10) AlBr3 Box final answer. 1) CaCl2 2) H2CO3 3) FeS2 4) NO2 5) Ni2O3 6) hydrosulfuric acid 7) titanium IV sulfide 8) strontium nitrate 9) tetrachlorine heptoxide 10) aluminum bromide

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