Be an Active Reader . . . . . . . xvi Africa Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R21Previewing Your Asia: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R22 Pacific Rim: Physical/Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R24 Textbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii Polar Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R26Scavenger Hunt . . . . . . . . . xxiii Geography Reference Handbook . . . GH1 Atlas . . . . . . . . . . R1 How Do I Study Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GH2The World: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R2 How Do I Use Maps and Globes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GH4The World: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R4 Using Charts, Graphs, and Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . GH11North America: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R6 Geographic Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GH14North America: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R7United States: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R8 Tools of the Historian . . .Tools1United States: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R10Middle America: Physical/Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R12 Measuring Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tools1South America: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R14 Organizing Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tools2South America: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R15 How Does a Historian Work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tools4Europe: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R16 History and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tools6Middle East Physical/Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R18 What Is a Historical Atlas? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tools8Africa: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R20 Links Across Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tools10 Ancient Assyrian soldiersiv Contents Ancient Egyptian artwork of a funeral boatGianni Dagli Orti/CORBIS The Ancient World . . . . . . . 108 Early Civilizations . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 1 The Ancient Greeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 The First Civilizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Making Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 1 The Early Greeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Previewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 Sparta and Athens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 1 Early Humans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3 Persia Attacks the Greeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 2 Mesopotamian Civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4 The Age of Pericles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 3 The First Empires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 2 Greek Civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Predicting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1 The Culture of Ancient Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 1 The Nile Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2 Greek Philosophy and History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 2 Egypt’s Old Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3 Alexander the Great . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 3 The Egyptian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 4 The Spread of Greek Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 4 The Civilization of Kush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 3 Early India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 The Ancient Israelites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Main Idea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 1 India’s Early Civilizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 1 The First Israelites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 2 Hinduism and Buddhism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 2 The Kingdom of Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 3 India’s First Empires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 3 The Growth of Judaism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 CHAPTER 7 Early China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Text Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 1 China’s First Civilizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 2 Life in Ancient China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 3 The Qin and Han Dynasties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 v Tang dynasty bottle Seattle Art Museum/CORBISNew Empires The Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . 400and New Faiths . . . . . . . . . . 254 CHAPTER 12CHAPTER 8 China in the Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404The Rise of Rome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Inferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Taking Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 1 China Reunites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .408 1 Rome’s Beginnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 2 Chinese Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 2 The Roman Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 3 The Mongols in China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 3 The Fall of the Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 4 The Ming Dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 4 The Early Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 CHAPTER 13CHAPTER 9 Medieval Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440Roman Civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 Compare and Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 Responding & Reflecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 1 The Rise of African Civilizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 1 Life in Ancient Rome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 2 Africa’s Government and Religion . . . . . . . . . . . 460 2 The Fall of Rome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 3 African Society and Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 3 The Byzantine Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 CHAPTER 14CHAPTER 10 Medieval Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480The Rise of Christianity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Cause and Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 Sequence Clues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 1 Early Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 1 The First Christians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 2 Shoguns and Samurai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 2 The Christian Church . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 3 Life in Medieval Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 3 The Spread of Christian Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 CHAPTER 15CHAPTER 11 Medieval Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508Islamic Civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Questioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 Main Idea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 1 The Early Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 1 The Rise of Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 2 Feudalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 2 Islamic Empires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 3 Kingdoms and Crusades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 3 Muslim Ways of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 4 The Church and Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544 5 The Late Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553vi Richard A. Cooke/CORBIS Contents Anasazi jewelryA Changing World . . . . . . . . 564 What Is an Appendix? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707 SkillBuilder Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708CHAPTER 16 Standardized Test Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726 Primary Sources Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 736The Americas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 Suggested Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 Summarizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570 Spanish Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 756 1 The First Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 Gazetteer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763 2 Life in the Americas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772 3 The Fall of the Aztec and Inca Empires . . . . . . . 593 Acknowledgements and Photo Credits . . . . . . . . . 792CHAPTER 17 Figure of Mayan leaderThe Renaissance and Reformation . . . . . . 604 Analyze and Clarify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606 1 The Renaissance Begins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608 2 New Ideas and Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618 3 The Reformation Begins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 4 Catholics and Protestants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642CHAPTER 18Enlightenment and Revolution. . . . . . . . . . 654 Monitor and Adjust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656 1 The Age of Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 2 The Scientific Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670 3 The Enlightenment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680 4 The American Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690 Nik Wheeler/CORBISThe Alhambra Bowers Museum of Cultural Art/CORBIS vii Paleolithic Cave Paintings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The Mystery of Smallpox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391“Hymn to the Nile” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Defending Confucianism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413Selecting a New King . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Li Bo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420The Ten Commandments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Kublai Khan’s Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428Proverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Ghana Profits From Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462The Talmud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 The Sultan of Mali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465Athenian Soldier’s Oath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Japan’s New Constitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488Herodotus’s History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Bushido Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495Pericles’ Funeral Oration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Magna Carta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537Demosthenes’ Warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Ibn Fadlan Describes the Rus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539The Poetry of Theocritus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 The Franciscan Way of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546Morality in the Eightfold Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 The Aztec Defeat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597The Bhagavad Gita . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Incan Record Keeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599The Aeneid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 The Prince . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614A Roman Triumph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Leonardo’s Inventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621Cicero Calls for War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Knowledge of God . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640The Book of Epodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Ignatius and Christianity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644Distrust of Money . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 The Law of Nations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682Rome Is Attacked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 The Natural Rights of Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685Theodora Refuses to Flee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 The Mayflower Compact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693Sermon on the Mount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 The Declaration of Independence . . . . . . . . . . . 698Royal Caliphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 The Epic of Gilgamesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738 The Prince Who Knew His Fate, An Egyptian Father’s Advice to His Son . . . . . . . 739 translated by Lise Manniche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Ancient Israelites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739 The Analects of Confucius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 “Icarus and Daedalus,” The Rights of Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741 retold by Josephine Preston Peabody . . . . . . 164 The Rig Veda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741 A Woman on the Throne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 742 “A Wild-Goose Chase: A Heroic Rescue Attempt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 743 The Story of Philemon and Baucis,” The Quran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 743 retold by Geraldine McCaughrean . . . . . . . . . 311 The Sultan of Mali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744 The Magna Carta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745 “Sundiata: The Hungering Lion,” The Tale of Genji . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745 retold by Kenny Mann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 Arrival of the Spaniards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746 The Life of Olaudah Equiano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747 “A Midsummer Night’s Dream,” Queen Elizabeth’s Speech to Her Troops . . . . . . 747 by William Shakespeare, adapted by E. Nesbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627viii FeaturesÖtzi the Iceman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Muhammad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376Hammurabi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Omar Khayyam and Ibn Khaldun . . . . . . . . . . . . 392Hatshepsut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Genghis Khan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427Ramses II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Zheng He . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434David . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Mansa Musa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466Ruth and Naomi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Queen Nzinga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471Pericles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Prince Shotoku . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489Homer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Murasaki Shikibu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502Plato and Aristotle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Charlemagne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517The Buddha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Thomas Aquinas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551Emperor Asoka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Joan of Arc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556Confucius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Pachacuti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589Qin Shihuangdi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Montezuma II and Hernán Cortés . . . . . . . . . . . 598Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Leonardo da Vinci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622Augustus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Martin Luther . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638Constantine the Great . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Catherine de’ Medici . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647Empress Theodora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Elizabeth I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665Jesus of Nazareth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Sir Isaac Newton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677Paul of Tarsus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 John Locke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683Saint Augustine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357Finding the Main Idea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709 Summarizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718Taking Notes and Outlining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710 Evaluating a Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719Reading a Time Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711 Understanding Cause and Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720Sequencing and Categorizing Information . . . . . 712 Making Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721Recognizing Point of View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713 Making Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722Distinguishing Fact From Opinion . . . . . . . . . . . . 714 Drawing Inferences and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . 723Analyzing Library and Research Resources . . . . 715 Recognizing Economic Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . 724Analyzing Primary Source Documents . . . . . . . . 716 Interpreting Political Cartoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725Building a Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717 ix Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Hieroglyphs and Computer Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 From Farming to Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Head Coverings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Cats in Ancient Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 The Olympics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Education in Ancient Israel and Judah . . . . . . . . . 98 The Theater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Women’s Duties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Papermaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Greek Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Living in the Shadow of Mt. 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Thomas Francis Bowring. 1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 Carter. 1955. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 Heike Monogatori. From The Tale of the Heike. Tr. Hiroshi KitagawaLi Bo. “Seeing a Friend Off.” In The Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry. Tr./Ed. Burton Watson. 1984. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 and Bruce T. Tsuchida. 1975. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504Li Bo. “Still Night Thoughts.” In The Columbia Book of Chinese Seami Ju¯ rokubushu¯ Hyo¯ shaku. “The Book of the Way of the Poetry. Tr./Ed. Burton Watson. 1984. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 Highest Flower (Shikado¯ -Sho).” In Sources of Japanesexii Tradition. Ed. Ryusaku Tsunoda, et al. 1958. . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Chapter 15 Charlemagne. Quoted in “The World of Charlemagne” by Norman P. Zacour. In The Age of Chivalry. Ed. Merle Severy. 1969. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 A. E. Dick Howard, ed. Magna Carta: Text and Commentary. 1964. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 Primary Source QuotesIbn Fadlan. From Risa¯la. In “Ibn Fadla¯ n’s Account of the Ru¯ s with Isaac Newton. Quoted in On the Shoulders of Giants. Ed. Stephen Some Commentary and Some Allusions to Beowulf,” by H. M. Hawking. 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677 Smyser. In Franciplegius. Ed. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. and Robert P. Creed. 1965. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu. From The Spirit of Laws. In Great Books of the Western World, V38. Ed. RobertPope Urban II. Reported by Robert the Monk. Quoted in The Maynard Hutchins. Tr. Thomas Nugent. Revised by J. V. Prichard. Discoverers. Daniel J. Boorstin. 1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 1952. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682Francis of Assisi. “Admonitions (ca. 1220 C.E.).” In Sources of World John Locke. From Two Treatises of Government. 1991. . . . . . . . 683 History, V1. Ed. Mark A. Kishlansky. 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 Mary Wollstonecraft. From A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.St. Thomas Aquinas. From Summa Theologiae. Ed. Timothy 2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 McDermott. 1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 “The Mayflower Compact.” In Documents of American History. Ed.Charles Scott Moncrieff, ed. The Song of Roland. 1976. . . . . . . 552 Henry Steele Commager. 1958. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693From Joan of Arc: In Her Own Words. Ed./Tr. Willard Trask. “The Declaration of Independence.” In Documents of American 1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 History. Ed. Henry Steele Commager. 1958. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698King Louis IX. “Legal Rules for Military Service.” In Aspects of Duarte Barbosa. “The East Coast of Africa.” From The Book of Western Civilization, V1. Ed. Perry M. Rogers. 2000. . . . . . 561 Duarte Barbosa. In Aspects of Western Civilization, V1. Ed. Perry M. Rogers. 2000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703Chapter 16 Primary Source LibraryPachacuti. Quoted in History of the Incas. Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa. 1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589 From Gilgamesh. Translated from Sîn-leqi-unninnı¯ version by John Gardner and John Maier. 1984. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738Juan Díaz. Quoted in “Conquest and Aftermath” by Gene S. Stuart. In The Mysterious Maya by George E. Stuart and Gene S. “The Precepts of Ptah-Hotep, c. 2200 BCE.” In Ancient History Stuart. 1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 Sourcebook. www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/ptahhotep.html . . . . . . . . 739From The Broken Spears. Ed. Miguel Leon-Portilla. Tr. Lysander Kemp. 1992. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597 Genesis 12:1–7. From The Revised English Bible. 1989. . . . . . . 739 Confucius. Analects. From The Essential Confucius. Tr. ThomasPedro de Cieza de Léon. “Chronicles of the Incas, 1540,” from The Second Part of the Chronicle of Peru. In Modern Cleary. 1992. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 History Sourcebook. Socrates. From Plato’s Republic. Tr. B. Jowett. 1982. . . . . . . . . 741 www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1540cieza.html . . . . . . . . . . 599 “Night.” From The Rig Veda. Ed./Tr. Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty.Bartolomé de las Casas. “Apologetic History of the Indies (1566 1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741 C.E.).” In Sources of World History, V1. Ed. Mark A. Kishlansky. Anna Comnena. “The Alexiad: Book III.” From The Alexiad. 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 Ed./Tr. Elizabeth A. Dawes. 1928. In Medieval Sourcebook.Chapter 17 www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/annacomnena- alexiad03.html . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 742Niccolò Machiavelli. “The Prince (1513 C.E.).” In Sources of World Pliny. Letters and Panegyricus, V1, Letters, Books I–VII. Tr. Betty History, V1. Ed. Mark A. Kishlansky. 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614 Radice. 1969. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 743 From An Interpretation of the Qur’an. Tr. Majid Fakhry.Leonardo da Vinci. From The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, V2. 2000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 743 Ed. Jean Paul Richter. 1970. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622 Ibn Fadl Allah al Omari. “Mali in the Fourteenth Century.” In The African Past. Ed. Basil Davidson. 1964. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744William Shakespeare. “A Midsummer Night’s Dream.” In The From Magna Carta and The Tradition of Liberty. Louis B. Wright. Children’s Shakespeare. Adapted by E. Nesbit. 1938. . . 627–632 1976. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745 Lady Murasaki. From The Tale of Genji. Tr. Arthur Waley.Martin Luther. “The Ninety-five Theses (1517).” In Aspects of 1960. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745 Western Civilization, V1. Ed. Perry M. Rogers. 2000. . . . . . . 638 From The Broken Spears. Ed. Miguel Leon-Portilla. Tr. Lysander Kemp. 1992. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746John Calvin. Institutes of the Christian Religion. In Sources of World From The Kidnapped Prince: The Life of Olaudah Equiano. By History, V1. Ed. Mark A. Kishlansky. 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 Olaudah Equiano. Adapted by Ann Cameron. 1995. . . . . . 747 “Queen Elizabeth’s Armada Speech to the Troops at Tilbury,From The Autobiography of St. Ignatius Loyola. Tr. Joseph F. August 9, 1588.” In Elizabeth I: Collected Works. Tr. Leah S. O’Callaghan. Ed. John C. Olin. 1974. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644 Marcus, et al. 2000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747Catherine de Medici. Quoted in Biography of a Family. Waldman xiii Milton. 1936. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647Martin Luther. “The Ninety-five Theses (1517).” In Aspects of Western Civilization, V1. Ed. Perry M. Rogers. 2000. . . . . . . 653Chapter 18“Queen Elizabeth’s Armada Speech to the Troops at Tilbury, August 9, 1588.” In Elizabeth I: Collected Works. Tr. Leah S. Marcus, et al. 2000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 MoIntion Maps, charts, and graphs labeled with the In Motion icon have been specially enhanced in the StudentWorks™ Plus CD-ROM and the Presentation Plus! CD-ROM. These In Motion graphics allow students to interact with layers of dis-National Geographic Maps played data and listen to audio components. Reference Atlas Geography of India . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Aryan Migration, 2000–500 B.C. . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . 198World: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R2 Mauryan Empire, c. 250 B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210World: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R4 Gupta Empire, c. A.D. 600 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213North America: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R6 The Geography of China . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225North America: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R7 Shang Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226United States: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R8 Zhou Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230United States: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R10 Qin and Han Empires, 221 B.C.–A.D. 220 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241Middle America: Physical/Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R12 Trading in the Ancient World . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246South America: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R14South America: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R15 Unit 3Europe: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R16Middle East Physical/Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R18 Italy, 500 B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263Africa: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R20 Growth of the Roman Republic, 500–146 B.C. . .M. oI.nt.io.n. . 269Africa: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R21 The Punic Wars, 264–146 B.C. . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274Asia: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R22 The Roman Empire: Trade and Expansion . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . 292Pacific Rim: Physical/Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R24 Germanic Invasions of Rome, c. A.D. 200–500 . .M. o.Int.io.n. . 323Polar Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R26 The Byzantine Empire, A.D. 527–565 . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . 329 Spread of Christianity, A.D. 325 . . . M. o.Int.io.n. . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Geography Spread of Christianity, A.D. 325–1100 . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . 361 Handbook . . . . .GH1 The Middle East, c. A.D. 600 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 The Spread of Islam, A.D. 632–750 . . .M. oI.nt.io.n. . . . . . . . . . 380How Do I Study Geography? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GH2 Abbasid Empire, A.D. 800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383How Do I Use Maps and Globes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GH4 The Expansion of the Ottoman Empire . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . 385Using Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GH11Geographic Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GH14 Unit 4Unit 1 Tang Dynasty China, c. A.D. 700 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Song China, c. A.D. 1200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411Early Farming, 7000–2000 B.C. . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Mongol Empire Under Genghis Khan, 1227 . . .M. oI.nt.io.n. . . 424Ancient Mesopotamia . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Mongol Empire, 1294 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425Assyrian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Ming Dynasty China, 1368–1644 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431Ancient Egypt, c. 3100 B.C. . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Zheng He’s Voyages, 1405–1433 . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . 433Egyptian Kingdoms . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Geography and Climate Zones in Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445Kush Kingdom, c. 250 B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Trade Routes of North Africa . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448Ancient Israel . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Trade in East Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 African Religions Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463Unit 2 Bantu Migrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 The Slave Trade, c. 1450–1800 . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473Ancient Greece, c. 750 B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Geography of Japan . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485Greek Colonies and Trade, 750–550 B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Europe’s Geography and People, c. A.D. 500 . . . . . . . . . . 513Sparta and Athens, c. 700 B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Germanic Kingdoms, c. A.D. 500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514The Persian Empire, 500 B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 The Frankish Kingdom, c. A.D. 500–800 . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . 516Persian Wars, 499–479 B.C. . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Invasions of Europe, c. A.D. 800–1000 . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . 518The Peloponnesian War, 431–404 B.C. . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . 144 Europe, c. 1160 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538Alexander’s Empire, 323 B.C. . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Growth of Moscow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540Hellenistic World, 241 B.C. . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179xiv Maps, Charts & GraphsThe Crusades, 1096–1204 . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 Italy, c. 1500 . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609Jewish Expulsions, c. 1100–1500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 Holy Roman Empire, 1520 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639The Black Death in Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 Religions in Europe, c. 1600 . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645The Black Death in Europe . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 European Exploration of the World . . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . 662The Hundred Years’ War . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 European Trade in Asia, c. 1700 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667 The Columbian Exchange . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668Unit 5 Growth of Prussia and Austria, c. 1525–1720 . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . 688 Europeans in North America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691Migration to America . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 Thirteen Colonies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694Civilizations of Mesoamerica . . . .M.oIn.ti.on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575 Colonial Trade Routes, c. 1750 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695Civilizations of South America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577People and Cultures of North America, c. 1300–1500 . . . . 590Charts and Graphs Greek and Roman Gods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 The Decline of Rome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318Unit 1 Early Church Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 The Cyrillic Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363Comparing the Neolithic and Paleolithic Ages . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Five Pillars of Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378Comparing Mesopotamia to Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 The First Four Caliphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85Hebrew Prophets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Unit 4Major Jewish Holy Days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Dynasties of China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409Unit 2 Comparing Africa to the U.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 African Trading Empires, A.D. 100–1600 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451The Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Religion in Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463Comparing Governments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 European Population, A.D. 1300–1500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555Greek Gods and Goddesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155Greek Philosophers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Unit 5Greek Scientists and Their Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . 185Early India’s Social System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Important European Explorers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663Major Hindu Deities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 The Scientific Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676Chinese Numbering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 The Scientific Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679Chinese Philosophers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238Four Chinese Dynasties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247Unit 3The Julio-Claudian Emperors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288The “Good Emperors” of the Pax Romana . . . . . . . . . . . 292Diagrams Roman Legionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 A Medieval Manor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524 The Roman Colosseum . . . . . . . . . 305 A Medieval Castle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527Archaeological Dig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 A Roman House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Tenochtitlán . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586Ancient Egyptian Society . . . . . . . . . 45 Islamic Mosque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Florence Cathedral . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610Inside a Pyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 City Life in Tang China . . . . . . . . . . 412 Globe Theater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625Athenian Homes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 The City of Djenne . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 Santa María . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661The Trojan Horse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Samurai Armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 The Microscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678The Parthenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Feudal Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523Typical Home in Early India . . . . . . 197Chinese Village . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 xv CiviEliazraltyions Each civilization that you will study in this unit made important contributions to history. • The Mesopotamians developed writing. • The Egyptians created papyrus. • The Israelites’ scripture influenced the religions of Europe. 8000 B.C. 5000 B.C. 2000 B.C. First c. 8000 B.C. c. 3200 B.C. c. 1790 B.C.Civilizations Farming begins in Sumerians in Hammurabi intro- Chapter 1 southwest Asia Mesopotamia duces code of laws develop writing Ancient Egypt Hammurabi stands before a god Chapter 2 c. 5000 B.C. c. 2540 B.C. c. 1500 B.C. AncientIsraelites Hunter-gatherers settle Egyptians complete Queen Nile River valley building of Great Hatshepsut Chapter 3 Pyramid becomes pharaoh Pyramids at Giza, Egypt c. 2000 B.C. Abraham enters Canaan Abraham leads Israelites to Canaan(t)Reunion des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource, NY, (c)John Heaton/CORBIS, (b)Tom Lovell/National Geographic Society Image Collection (tl)Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York/Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund/Bridgeman Art Library, (bl)Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY, (others)SuperStock0° 01,000 mi.30°ECaspian Sea 60°E 90°E Nile R.0 1,000 km ASIA IMercator projection ndus R. Black Sea Chapter 1 Chapter 3 Euph ates Tigris R. r R. N Persian Gulf W E Chapter 2 Red S Sea Chapter 1 AFRICA Chapter 2 Chapter 3 EQUATOR INDIAN OCEAN1000 B.C. 750 B.C. 500 B.C. 250 B.C. A.D. 100 c. 744 B.C. c. 612 B.C. Assyria expands Chaldeans capture into Babylon Assyrian capital Hanging gardens of Babylonc. 1000 B.C. 728 B.C.Kush breaks Kush conquersfree of Egypt Egypt Kushite king Taharqa Lion statue honoring Kushite king Aspaltac. 1000 B.C. 586 B.C. 168 B.C. A.D. 70King David rules Israel Chaldeans Maccabean revolt Romans capture destroy temple Jerusalem in Jerusalem Jews led Ancient Jerusalem into exile 1 1 Ishtar Gate Mediterranean Sea 5 See First Civilizations 3 Red Chapter 1 Sea AFRICA2 Sumerian figures See First Civilizations Chapter 1 4 c. 3300 B.C. Ruled c. 1792–1750 B.C. Ruled c. 1473–1458 B.C.Iceman found in Babylonian king Egyptian pharaoh Chapter 1, page 22 Chapter 2, page 63 the Alps Chapter 1, page 1222–3 ©Worldsat International Inc. 2004, All Rights Reserved, (t)S. Fiore/SuperStock, (c)Scala/Art Resource, NY, (bl)Giansanti Gianni/CORBIS Sygma, (bc)Louvre Museum, Paris/Bridgeman Art Library, (br)MetropolitanMuseum of Art, Rogers Fund and Edward S. Harkness Gift,1929 (29.3.3) ASIA 3 Egyptian sphinx Caspian See Ancient Egypt Sea Chapter 21 4 Kushite pyramids 2 See Ancient Egypt Persian Chapter 2 Gulf 5 Western Wall See Ancient Israelites Chapter 3Ruled c. 1279–1213 B.C. c. 1100 B.C. Ruled c. 1000–970 B.C. Egyptian ruler Israelite women King of Israel Chapter 2, page 66 Chapter 3, page 99 Chapter 3, page 88 3(t to b)Sylvain Grandadam/Getty Images, Timothy Kendall/Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Gary Cralle/Getty Images, (l to r)O. Louis Mazzatenta/National Geographic Society Image Collection, SuperStock,Bettmann/CORBIS The First Georg Gerster/Photo Researchers CivilizationsRuins of a ziggurat in Iraq3000 B.C. 2000 B.C. 1000 B.C. c. 3000 B.C. c. 1792 B.C. 612 B.C. Bronze Age Hammurabi Nineveh captured; begins rules Assyrian Empire Mesopotamia crumbles Chapter Preview Chapter Overview Visit Some of the first civilizations arose in southwest Asia. The jat.glencoe.com for a previewpeople of these civilizations gradually learned how to farm of Chapter 1.and developed systems of government, writing, and religion. View the Chapter 1 video in the World History: Journey Across Time Video Program.Early HumansThe earliest humans hunted animals and gatheredplants for food. When farming developed, peoplesettled in towns and cities.Mesopotamian CivilizationIn early Mesopotamian civilizations, religion andgovernment were closely linked. Kings createdstrict laws to govern the people.The First EmpiresNew empires arose in Mesopotamia around 900 B.C.These civilizations included the Assyrians and theChaldeans. They used powerful armies and ironweapons to conquer the region. Compare and Contrast Make this foldable to help you compare and contrast the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia.Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper Step 2 Turn the paper and Reading and Writingin half from side to side. fold it into thirds. As you read the chapter, write notes under eachFold it so the left Step 4 Label as shown. appropriate tab of your foldable. Keep in mindedge lies about that you are trying to1 compare these2 inch from the civilizations. right edge.Step 3 Unfold and cut The First Civilizationsthe top layer only alongboth folds. Early Mesopo- Empires Humans tamia This will make three tabs. 5 Previewing Get Ready to Read! Before you read, take time to preview the chapter. This will give you a head start on what you are about to learn. Follow the steps below to help you quickly read, or skim, Section 1 on page 9.2–The Early Humans 1–Readunder each main the mainhead tells you the Paleolithic people adapted to headings“big picture.” It their environment and invented many tools in large redsummarizes the to help them survive. type. Theymain point of Reading Focus What do you view as the show thewhat you are greatest human achievement? Sending people to main topicsabout to read. the moon, perhaps, or inventing the computer? covered in Read to learn about the accomplishments of the section3–The Reading people during the Paleolithic Age. or chapter.Focus helps you tomake a connection History is the story ofbetween what you humans . . .might alreadyknow and what you Tools of Discoveryare about to read.Alosmoyakopuast,sapkniicmdtu,crahelassro,ts. 4–Under each main head, read the sub- heads in blue type. Subheads break down each main topic into smaller topics. Preview by Skimming Read to Write Use each main head, the main ideas, and the subheads in Section 2 of this chapter to create a study outline.FirTshte EmpiresSkim all of the main heads and main ideas in Section 3starting on page 26. Then, in small groups, discuss theanswers to these questions.• Which part of this section do you think will be most interesting to you?• What do you think will be covered in Section 3 that was not covered in Section 2?• Are there any words in the Main Ideas that you do not know how to pronounce?• Choose one of the Reading Focus questions to discuss in your group.Skim Section 2 on your own. Write 7one thing in your notebook that youwant to learn by reading this chapter. Early Humans What’s the Connection? Building Your Vocabulary historian (hih•STOHR•ee•uhn) Today people live in towns and cities of various sizes and make their archaeologist living in different ways. Read to find out how early humans lived by (AHR • kee • AH • luh • jihst) moving from place to place, forming artifact (AHR • tih • FAKT) settlements, and exploring different fossil (FAH•suhl) ways to provide for themselves and their families. anthropologist Focusing on the (AN • thruh • PAH • luh • jihst) nomad (NOH • MAD) • Paleolithic people adapted to their technology (tehk•NAH•luh•jee) domesticate (duh • MEHS • tih • KAYT) environment and invented many tools to help them survive. (page 9) specialization • In the Neolithic Age, people started (SPEH • shuh • luh • ZAY • shuhn) farming, building communities, Reading Strategy producing goods, and trading. Determine Cause and Effect Draw (page 13) a diagram like the one below. Use it to explain how early humans adapted Locating Places to their environment. Jericho (JEHR • ih • KOH) Cause: Effect: Çatal Hüyük Cause: Effect: (chah•TAHL hoo•YOOK) Cause: Effect: 8000 B.C. 6000 B.C. 4000 B.C. 2000 B.C. ¸Catal c. 8000 B.C. c. 6700 B.C. c. 3000 B.C.H¨uy¨uk Jericho Çatal Hüyük Bronze Age Jericho founded settled begins8 CHAPTER 1 The First Civilizations Early Humans Tools of Discovery What we know about Paleolithic people adapted to their the earliest people comes from the thingsenvironment and invented many tools to help them they left behind. Scientists have workedsurvive. to uncover clues about early human life.Reading Focus What do you view as the greatest Archaeologists (AHR • kee • AH • luh • jihsts)human achievement? Sending people to the moon,perhaps, or inventing the computer? Read to learn hunt for evidence buried in the groundabout the accomplishments of people during the where settlements might once have been.Paleolithic Age. They dig up and study artifacts (AHR • tih • FAKTS)—weapons, tools, and other things History is the story of humans in the made by humans. They also look for fossilspast. It tells what they did and what hap- (FAH • suhls)—traces of plants or animalspened to them. Historians (hih • STOHR • ee • that have been preserved in rock.uhns) are people who study and write about Anthropologists (AN • thruh • PAH • luh • jihsts)the human past. They tell us that historybegan about 5,500 years ago, when people focus on human society. They study howfirst began to write. But the story of people humans developed and how they relatedreally begins in prehistory—the time before to one another.people developed writing. Historians call the early period of human history the Stone Age. The name comes from the fact that people during this time used stone to make tools and weapons.Archaeological Dig Archaeologists use special techniques and tools when carrying out a dig. Artifacts are photographed or sketched and their locations are mapped and noted. Soil is passed through a mesh screen to collect small fragments of tools or bone. What types of artifacts do archaeologists look for?BELOW THE SURFACE PRESERVING LOOKING FOR FRAGMENTS Layers of soil are Archaeologists may use plaster This scientist uses a wire mesh deposited one on to make a form or an imprint of screen to sift the soil to top of another. In gen- something they have found. discover small fragments eral, the farther the of artifacts. layer is below the sur- face, the older its soil CLEANING Artifacts must be handled and and artifacts are. cleaned carefully, often with soft brushes or other instruments. GRIDSGrids like these help archaeologistsrecord and map any artifacts found. Paleolithic who regularly move from place to place. They traveled in bands of 30 or so members Cave Paintings because it was safer and made the search for food easier.The oldest examples of Paleolithic art arecave paintings found in Spain and France. Men and women did different tasksMost of the paintings are of animals. within the group. Women stayed close to theThe paintings show that Paleolithic artists campsite, which was typically near a streamoften used several colors and techniques. or other water source. They looked after theThey sometimes used the uneven surface of children and searched nearby woods andthe rock to create a three-dimensional effect. meadows for berries, nuts, and grains. Painting of bison in Spanish cave Men hunted animals—an activity that sometimes took them far from camp. TheyWhat does this cave painting tell us about had to learn the habits of animals and makelife in the Paleolithic Age? tools for the kill. At first, they used clubs or drove the animals off cliffs. Over time,The earliest part of the period is the Paleolithic people invented spears, traps,Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Paleolithic and bows and arrows.means “old stone” in the Greek language.Paleolithic times began roughly 2.5 million Adapting to the Environment The wayyears ago and lasted until around 8000 B.C. that Paleolithic people lived depended onWho Were the Hunter-Gatherers? Try to where they lived. Those in warm climates needed little clothing or shelter. People inimagine the world during the Stone Age, cold climates sought protection from thelong before any roadways, farms, or vil- weather in caves. Over time, Paleolithiclages existed. Early humans spent most of people created new kinds of shelter. Thetheir time searching for food. They hunted most common was probably made of ani-animals, caught fish, ate insects, and gath- mal hides held up by wooden poles.ered nuts, berries, fruits, grains, and plants. Paleolithic people made a life-changing Because they hunted and gathered, discovery when they learned to tame fire.Paleolithic people were always on the move. Fire gave warmth to those gathered aroundThey were nomads (NOH • MADS), or people it. It lit the darkness and scared away wild animals. Food cooked over the fire tasted better and was easier to digest. In addition, smoked meat could be kept longer. Archaeologists believe that early humans started fires by rubbing two pieces of wood together. Paleolithic people later made drill- like wooden tools to start fires. What Were the Ice Ages? Fire was a key to the survival of Paleolithic people during the Ice Ages. These were long periods of extreme cold. The last Ice Age began about 100,000 B.C. From then until about 8000 B.C.,10 CHAPTER 1 The First CivilizationsMichael Holford American Museum of Natural History thick ice sheets covered parts of Europe, Tools One of the most important Asia, and North America. advances of prehistoric people was the The Ice Age was a threat to human life. creation of stone tools. Tools made People risked death from the cold and also hunting, gathering, building shelter, from hunger. Early humans had to adapt and making clothing much easier. by changing their diet, building sturdier shelters, and using animal furs to make The first tools were made of warm clothing. The mastery of fire helped stones. Early humans quickly learned people live in this environment. that grinding, breaking, and shaping the stones to create sharp edges Language, Art, and Religion Another made them more useful. advance in Paleolithic times was the devel- As technology advanced, people opment of spoken language. Language made began making specific tools such as it far easier for people to work together and food choppers, meat scrapers, and to pass on knowledge. spear points. In time, people learned that hitting a stone in a particular Early people expressed themselves not way would produce a flake—a long, only in words but in art. They crushed yel- sharp chip. Flakes were similar to low, black, and red rocks to make powders knives in the way they were used. for paint. Then they dabbed this on cave walls, creating scenes of lions, oxen, pan- Stone thers, and other animals. tools Historians are not sure why these cave Flaking tools from paintings were created. They may have had a larger stone religious meaning. Early people also might have thought that painting an animal would Connecting to the Past bring good luck in the hunt. 1. Why do you think early people chose The Invention of Tools Paleolithic people stones to make their first tools? were the first to use technology (tehk • NAH • 2. How were flakes created? luh • jee)—tools and methods to help humans perform tasks. People often used a hard stone called flint to make tools. By hitting flint with a hard stone, they could make it flake into pieces with very sharp edges. To make hand axes or hunting spears, they tied wooden poles to pieces of flint that were the right shape for the tool. Over time, early people grew more skilled at making tools. They crafted smaller and sharper tools, such as fishhooks and needles made from animal bones. They used needles to make nets and baskets and to sew hides together for clothing. Contrast How are fossils and artifacts different? CHAPTER 1 The First Civilizations 11 ÖTZI THE ICEMAN c. 3300 B.C.ATmÖtflcUhsiÖohiAubrvSrlomttoaeienssoeuzhmttuudbttItdizdedhnfomruÖn’noifaseaiayebFrraec5wtAwttarm.ltrnreboad.ezo,lnEaDite3eyaogivin.aamxnhn.gdns0erdwHwznpb1dseertr0iycadtreeahnea9erw,eocaIcsesrfsengyt9halplworstcahoue1hcrdsiravrfeplsyeiaaaaeryaiernainblostrsikrlresaccnlwlesetdewhlesttvlnwaewgodlihsseodtaihistsybleeteeea,gcal,ess,“dohhadvassoaoccneÖsbiuetgiewroniveko,vdwasieosettenedddpe,uaÖ,nztadrlrhgrs,upostateietsmartec”Öhioerninamdzsfalisicnrmoaelnietdttotiylethlffdnuzsaagwiiyfhutfamtieettnxtoeelhearrwt.iwrbaed,dfrsehesPathtaeaftjh.ishethetaorncsraacniS.ehohitneceladtTdsNcarhleezaskeeueoibaehaamltedeedbtnitiaahfbsÖeonnvnenhtyonkoeheahyrtaeiserdwptftsetperauttlectbeedtloiooozoaifhiehtekhtnalraoseaeotwuSewhcfphpeipatsedartarvdguonkao.s.llriathta.rl,enyaochhbtdenfrOdhusSceAhshwonnsnteridAtetfokots.whenfailtentlhghmauhnpofgaHmhwotwecdfweahscdasetueTgaeooeidÖtÖelo,eineoi.symenwrurbtslueetmadrÖdftrhtt.dttslrtdhnteenooszeozceSrctr.awteltssihialrfihhWalica’znaubetb-esviaMciediemmim.ege’neernslhssdao’mnguhttltosseabaelihaeotsa.oansndowd,tiekasmEtussgeehkut.ustaiÖttwlrgnetasdmyttbrithhtisihchiehtufhsttzofthehearhtosiiotraunuetoihrhdffsismhrkndyimohhuasAlni.iaiuÖosdepehilrÖwssarhwcpdihtthtbssrehtolzreeieezhtrilaitemrrdeahiedeooiedsmgdtenieuotÖrS.sveehfaeahcrÖltiotradfttnoopsy,iooaoczuteetorglhhtirioorenonezhnfawyeamlfiinthdpdmagscgniupteiÖldsavk,hdnydanatcyreeihotiastneo.tnesrBpenzhWitwd,dboapcyoiioeaera.’eralfhnasoevlasmsfnSrbhzeÖneau.yuctlcaaliaWiotdopeheysnlfitnnedoeeenddpzedsdolhoeni.rtahrls’,eibaedkbhsttsoeIdhieytontstwssuodi.antsaprslwlynik.hea.t This copper ax, along with the Itmfhsiegchireetnmtthiaseitnyssc5oo,3fn0sco0lumydeeeaoarnsbeofrfuortommounroouswor cdtiiiemstcyeo?,vwerheadt bow and arrows that you can see above, were Ötzi’s main weapons.(tr)Giansanti Gianni/CORBIS Sygma, (bl)Kenneth Garrett Neolithic Times This change in the way people lived marked the beginning of the Neolithic Age, In the Neolithic Age, people started or New Stone Age, which began aboutfarming, building communities, producing goods, 8000 B.C. and lasted until about 4000 B.C.and trading.Reading Focus Did you know that, today, more than a Why Was Farming Important? Historiansthird of the world’s people work in agriculture? Read tolearn how farming began and how it changed the world. call the changes in the Neolithic Age the farming revolution. The word revolution After the last Ice Age ended, people refers to changes that greatly affect manybegan to change their way of life. They began areas of life. Some historians consider theto domesticate (duh • MEHS • tih • KAYT), or tame farming revolution the most importantanimals and plants for human use. Animals event in human history.provided meat, milk, and wool. They alsocarried goods and pulled carts. Farming did not begin in one region and spread. People in different parts of the In addition, people also learned how to world discovered how to grow crops atgrow food. For the first time, people could about the same time. In Asia, people grewstay in one place to grow grains and vegeta- wheat, barley, rice, soybeans, and a grainbles. Gradually, farming replaced hunting called millet. In Mexico, farmers grew corn,and gathering. squash, and potatoes. In Africa, they grew millet and a grain called sorghum. Early Farming 7000–2000 B.C. MoIntion 90°W 30°W 30°E 90°E 150°E OATS RYE 60°NPACIFIC NORTH ATLANTIC EUROPE ASIA PACIFIC OCEAN AMERICA OCEAN OCEAN AFRICATROPIC OF CANCER 30°N EQUATOR SOUTH N EQUATOR 0° AMERICA WETROPIC OF CAPRICORN0 2,000 mi. S AUSTRALIA 30°S0 2,000 km INDIAN OCEANMercator projectionFarming developed in many regions of the world. Barley Maize KEY Sweet p6o0°tSatoes1. According to the map, what crops were grown Beans Millet Tea Cocoa OATS Oats Potatoes Tomatoes in North America? Coffee Olives Rice Vanilla2. On which two continents did barley and Cotton Onions RYE Rye Wheat Emmer Peanuts Soybeans Yams wheat grow? Flax Peppers Squash SugarcaneFind NGS online map resources @ Sunflowerswww.nationalgeographic.com/maps CHAPTER 1 The First Civilizations 13 Comparing the Neolithic and Paleolithic Ages Paleolithic Age Neolithic AgeDescription Paleolithic people painted cave Neolithic people made pottery andof Art and walls. They usually painted carved objects out of wood. TheyCrafts animals. also built shelters and tombs. People hunted animals and People began to farm in permanentHow Humans gathered nuts, berries, and grains. villages. They continued to raiseObtained Food and herd animals. People built mud-brick houses andHow Humans People learned to make fire, places of worship. They specializedAdapted created a language, and in certain jobs and used copper and made simple tools and bronze to create more useful tools.Work of Women shelters. Women cared for children andand Men Women gathered food and cared performed household tasks. for children. Men hunted. Men herded, farmed, and protected the village. Humans made great advances from the Mexico. The earliest known communities Paleolithic Age to the Neolithic Age. have been found in the Middle East. One of 1. How did the work of men change from the the oldest is Jericho (JEHR • ih • KOH) in the West Bank between what are now Israel and Paleolithic Age to the Neolithic Age? Jordan. This city dates back to about 8000 B.C. 2. Describe What advances were made in Another well-known Neolithic commu- toolmaking between the Paleolithic and nity is Çatal Hüyük (chah • TAHL hoo • Neolithic Ages? YOOK) in present-day Turkey. Little of it remains, but it was home to some 6,000 peo-The Growth of Villages People who ple between about 6700 B.C. and 5700 B.C. They lived in simple mud-brick houses thatfarmed could settle in one place. Herders were packed tightly together and decoratedremained nomadic and drove their animals inside with wall paintings. They used otherwherever they could find grazing land. buildings as places of worship. Along withFarmers, however, had to stay close to their farming, the people hunted, raised sheepfields to water the plants, keep hungry ani- and goats, and ate fish and bird eggs frommals away, and harvest their crops. They nearby marshes.began to live in villages, where they builtpermanent homes. During the Neolithic Age, villages werestarted in Europe, India, Egypt, China, and14 CHAPTER 1 The First Civilizations(l)Michael Holford, (r)Ron Sheridan/Ancient Art & Architecture Collection The Benefits of a Settled Life The shift cloth. These craftspeople, like farmers, also took part in trade. They exchangedto settled life brought Neolithic people the things they made for goods they didgreater security than they had ever known. not have.Steady food supplies meant healthy, grow-ing populations. With a bigger population, In late Neolithic times, people contin-there were more workers to produce a ued to make advances. Toolmakers createdbigger crop. better farming tools, such as the sickle for cutting grain. In some places, people began Because villagers produced more than to work with metals. At first they used cop-enough to eat, they began to trade their per. They heated rocks to melt the copperextra foodstuffs. They traded with people inside and then poured it into molds forin their own communities and also with tools and weapons.people who lived in other areas. After 4000 B.C., craftspeople in western People began to practice specialization Asia mixed copper and tin to form bronze.(SPEH • shuh • luh • ZAY • shuhn), or the develop- Bronze was harder and longer lasting thanment of different kinds of jobs. Because not copper. It became widely used betweeneveryone was needed for farming, some 3000 B.C. and 1200 B.C., the period known aspeople had the time to develop other types the Bronze Age.of skills. They made pottery from clay tostore their grain and other foods. They used Compare How did theplant fibers to make mats and to weave Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages differ? Study Central™ Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.comReading Summary What Did You Learn? 4. Explain Why were Paleolithic people nomads?Review the 1. Who are archaeologists and what do they study? 5. Compare Compare the tech-• Early humans were nomads who nology of the Paleolithic Age 2. How did domesticating animals with that of the Neolithic Age. moved around to hunt animals help the Neolithic people? and gather food. They built 6. Analyze Why was the ability shelters and used fire to survive. Critical Thinking to make a fire so important? In time, they developed language 3. Determine Cause and and art. 7. Previewing Effect Draw a diagram like the Create a three-column chart.• During the farming revolution, one below. List some of the In the first column, write what effects that farming had on you knew about early humans people began to grow crops people’s lives. before you read this section. and domesticate animals, In the second column, write which allowed them to settle Cause: Effect: what you learned after reading. in villages. Farming Effect: In the third, write what you begins Effect: still would like to know. CHAPTER 1 The First Civilizations 15

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