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Hematologic system

Anemia – Aplastic: Nursing

Anemia – Iron-deficiency: Nursing

Anemia – Macrocytic: Nursing

Arterial blood gas (ABG) – Overview: Nursing

Arterial blood gas (ABG) – Metabolic acidosis: Nursing

Arterial blood gas (ABG) – Metabolic alkalosis: Nursing

Arterial blood gas (ABG) – Respiratory acidosis: Nursing

Arterial blood gas (ABG) – Respiratory alkalosis: Nursing

Blood cultures: Nursing

Cardiac biomarkers – Creatine kinase (CK): Nursing

Cardiac biomarkers – Troponin: Nursing

Coagulation studies – Partial thromboplastin time (PTT): Nursing

Complete blood count (CBC) – Hemoglobin & hematocrit (H&H): Nursing

Complete blood count (CBC) – Platelets: Nursing

Complete blood count (CBC) – Red blood cells (RBC): Nursing

Complete blood count (CBC) – White blood cells (WBC) & differential: Nursing

Complete metabolic panel (CMP) – Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) & creatinine (Cr): Nursing

Complete metabolic panel (CMP) – Chloride: Nursing

Complete metabolic panel (CMP) – Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): Nursing

Complete metabolic panel (CMP) – Glucose: Nursing

Complete metabolic panel (CMP) – Liver function tests (LFT): Nursing

Complete metabolic panel (CMP) – Potassium: Nursing

Complete metabolic panel (CMP) – Sodium: Nursing

Complete metabolic panel (CMP) – Total protein: Nursing

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): Nursing

Multiple myeloma: Nursing

Neutropenia: Nursing

Polycythemia: Nursing

Thalassemia: Nursing

Thrombocytopenia: Nursing

Hemolytic disease of the fetus & newborn: Nursing

Hemolytic uremic syndrome: Nursing

Anticoagulants – Direct thrombin inhibitors & factor Xa inhibitors: Nursing Pharmacology

Anticoagulants – Heparin: Nursing Pharmacology

Anticoagulants – Warfarin: Nursing Pharmacology

Antihyperlipidemics – Bile acid sequestrants & cholesterol absorption inhibitors: Nursing Pharmacology

Antihyperlipidemics – Fibrates: Nursing Pharmacology

Antihyperlipidemics – Statins: Nursing Pharmacology

Antihyperlipidemics – Miscellaneous: Nursing Pharmacology

Antiplatelet agents: Nursing Pharmacology

Blood products: Nursing Pharmacology

Hematopoietic growth factors: Nursing Pharmacology

Hemostatics: Nursing Pharmacology

Iron preparations: Nursing Pharmacology

Thrombolytics: Nursing Pharmacology

A 16-year-old client is brought to the clinic by their mother, with a report of fever, malaise, nausea, and diarrhea. On assessment, you note a temporal artery temperature of 101.5 F or 38.6 C. Based on these findings, a complete blood count, or CBC, is ordered to check their white blood cell count and differential.

White blood cells, also called leukocytes or WBCs for short, are created by the bone marrow from precursor cells. White blood cells help to ward off pathogens like bacteria and viruses, destroy cancerous cells, and neutralize toxins.

There are five types of WBCs that circulate in the body. First, there are neutrophils, which are the most plentiful WBC. They are also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes or PMNs because of their distinct nuclei, which have 2 to 5 lobes. Immature neutrophils are called bands or stabs. Neutrophils are the first type of WBC to respond to an infection.

Next, there are eosinophils, which are involved in allergic reactions, and are responsible for fighting off parasitic infections.

Then there are basophils, which have granules that contain histamine, so they specialize in inflammation and allergic reactions.

Next, there are monocytes that serve as the clean-up crew by removing foreign particles and dead cells. Finally, there are lymphocytes, which respond to viral and bacterial infections. These include B cells that make antibodies and T cells which kill pathogens and help other immune cells.

Now, the WBC count, also known as leukocyte count, or just white count, measures the number of WBCs in the blood, as is a part of a CBC. A normal WBC count ranges from 4,500 to 11,000/µL. SVG 7 Additionally, a WBC differential can be used to measure the proportion of each type of WBC. Usually, neutrophils make up about 50% to 70%, with 0% to 5% bands. Eosinophils make up about 1% to 3%, while basophils range from 0% to 2%, monocytes make up 2% to 11%. Finally, lymphocytes normally make 18% to 42% of total WBCs.

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