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Warm Up – Day 4 – 2/12/13. On your desk: ch. 8 packet and notes, “Who Rules” worksheet Warm-up:. Chapter 8. Political Geography. An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein. PPT by Abe Goldman. Let’s read the intro to Ch 8 together….


Warm Up – Day 4 – 2/12/13 On your desk: ch. 8 packet and notes, “Who Rules” worksheet Warm-up:

Chapter 8 Political Geography An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein PPT by Abe Goldman

Let’s read the intro to Ch 8 together… • What is Political Geography?

Is the idea of dividing up the world into countries crumbling? Since the end of the Cold War, globalization has increased. Power is increasinglyexercised through connections among states, companies, and individuals Yet at the same time, local diversity has increased in political matters as individual cultural groups demand more control over the territory they inhabit. Is the term state (country) still relevant?

What was the Cold War, exactly? After WWII, two countries rose to global domination: USA and USSR (United Soviet Socialist Republics) USA=democracy/ market economy USSR= communism/ command economy The Cold War is the term for the tension and competition between these two superpowers.

Events of the Cold War.. Korean War Space Race, Sputnik, Apollo missions Nuclear competition Cuban Missile Crisis Vietnam War

End of Cold War 1980’s leader Mikhail Gorbachev began to give Soviets more freedoms politically and economically. 1991 official breakdown of the USSR. 15 countries created.

Key Issue 1: Where Are States Located? I. Problems of defining states Korea: one state or two? China and Taiwan: one state or two? Western Sahara Varying sizes of states II. Development of the state concept City-State, Empire, Kingdom, State Colonies

Problems of Defining States State: Territory w/ recognized boundaries Population Government Sovereignty Disagreement over the number of sovereign states North Korea Taiwan Western Sahara UN has 192 members– less than 200 countries

North Korea – Is it a state? History Colony of Japan for most of early 20th century Divided by US and USSR after WWII (1945) Both N and S committed to reuniting country Korean War (1950-1953) Only cease fire, still officially at war Both admitted to UN in 1992 as separate countries Today – slow movement toward increased cooperation.

China and Taiwan: One or two states? History Civil War in 1930s and 1940s Communists, led by Mao Zedong, won in 1949 Nationalists, led by Chang Kai-Shek, lost and fled to Taiwan Both claimed to be legitimate gov’t of China Turning point in 1971 US recognized China as legitimate gov’t of China UN voted to turn “China’s” seat over to Communist led China Today China still considers Taiwan part of China Taiwan plays the US and China against each other for investment and security

Western Sahara or Sahrawi Republic Spain controlled territory until 1976 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Formed after Spain withdrew Seen by most African nations as a sovereign state Morocco claims the territory and built a series of walls around it

Antarctica: National Claims Fig. 8-2: Antarctica is the only large landmass that is not part of a state, but several countries claim portions of it.

United Nations Members Fig. 8-1: The UN has increased from 51 members in 1945 to 191 in 2003. Something to Ponder: Why has the number of states grown since 1945?

In principle, only sovereign states can become UN members, and today all UN members are fully sovereign states. Because a state can only be admitted by the approval of the Security Council and the General Assembly, some regions which may call themselves sovereign states are not members due to the fact that the UN does not consider them to be sovereign states based on the lack of international recognition or opposition from certain members. Taiwan and Sahrawi Republic are examples.

States come in all sizes Largest states: Russia China US Canada Brazil Australia Smallest states – the Microstates Monaco (smallest in UN) Andorra Vatican City Antigua* Kiribati* Barbuda* Barbados* Bahrain* Dominica* Grenada* Malta* Maldives* Palau* What do the majority of microstates have in common?

So, how did the concept of “state” develop? City-states Empires Kingdoms States There is a “kinda” chronology to this.

The Fertile Crescent Fig. 8-3: The Fertile Crescent was the site of early city-states and a succession of ancient empires.

Mesopotamian City-States c. 5000 BC • What might explain why city-states developed here? • Rivers for agriculture and trade • Crossroads b/t continents • benefited from diffusion of innovations • benefited from being on trade routes

Greek City-States c. 750 BC – c. 150 BC

Byzantine Empire (476–1453) The Eastern Orthodox Church formally split from the Pope and Roman Catholicism in 1054

In your notes… • Make a flow map of the evolution of civilizations from city state modern nation

Imperialism vs. Colonization If a country goes out and conquers a region already occupied and organized by an indigenous society, then it is imperialism. If a country goes out and conquers a region that is uninhabited or sparsely inhabited, then it is colonialism. Do the people being taken over see a difference?

Colonial Possessions, 1914 Fig. 8-4: By the outbreak of World War I, European states held colonies throughout the world, especially throughout Africa and in much of Asia.

Colonial Possessions, 2003 Fig. 8-5: Most of the remaining colonies are small islands in the Pacific or Caribbean. Pitcairn, part of the UK, is the world’s least populated colony. Puerto Rico is the most populous colony.

Key Issue 2: Boundaries and Boundary Problems of States I. Shapes of states Five basic shapes Landlocked states II. Types of boundaries Physical boundaries Cultural boundaries III. Boundaries inside states Unitary and federal states Trend toward federal government Electoral geography

Five Basic Shapes Describe and give examples of the five basic shapes and discuss the problems inherent in each of these shapes. (pp. 270-274) Compact Prorupted Elongated Fragmented Perforated

Which basic shape are they? Draw an example of each in your notes. Can you name the country? 2 1 3 4 5

African States Compact Prorupted Fragmented Perforated Fig. 8-6: Southern, central, and eastern Africa include states that are compact, elongated, prorupted, fragmented, and perforated.

India: The Tin Bigha Corridor Fig. 8-7: The Tin Bigha corridor fragmented two sections of the country of Bangladesh. When it was leased to Bangladesh, a section of India was fragmented.

Boundaries Various forms state boundaries take: Frontier Physical Boundaries Mountains Deserts Water Cultural Boundaries Geometric Religious Language

Frontiers in the Arabian Peninsula Fig. 8-8: Several states in the Arabian Peninsula are separated by frontiers rather than precise boundaries.

Aozou Strip: A Geometric Boundary Fig. 8-9: The straight boundary between Libya and Chad was drawn by European powers, and the strip is the subject of controversy between the two countries.

Europe after WWI in 1918 • New Countries created by the fall of the Ottoman Empire and Austrian-Hungarian Empire • Czechoslovakia • Austria • Hungary • Yugoslavia • Other new Countries • Poland (its back) • Estonia • Latvia • Lithuania

Division of Cyprus Fig. 8-10: Cyprus has been divided into Greek and Turkish portions since 1974.

Grab an atlas… • Find examples of each shape of state… • Now find examples for each type of boundary (physical, cultural (geometric, language, religion) • Put in your notes..

Boundaries inside of States Common political divisions Province, state**, territory, departments County, parish, district, commune City, town, village How much power each of these levels have depends on how the state’s (country’s) govt is organized. Many countries have had to restructure b/c of increased demands forself-determinationbyethnicities

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