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US foreign Policy

Basics of foreign policy
Nations set of plans and procedures for dealing w/foreign policies.

5 Goals of Foreign Policy
National Security- Primary goal of any nation. Establishing free and open trade Provides markets for US Goods and all the US to import goods from overseas. Promoting world peace & healthy environment When nations are at peace we don’t have to get involved- Syria/Libya Healthy environment=no disasters (malaria outbreaks/famines) Supporting Democracy Providing Aid to people in need $50 billion

How should FP be applied?
Isolationism- deal w/domestic issues and believe in staying out of world affairs keeps US safe. Trump believes in this.US has threatened to pull out

Internationalism Cooperation between nations
Active role best way to pursue N.S. Support US forging alliances w/ any nation that will serve our national interests or the country’s economic military or cultural goals Reason we support Saudi Arabia Extreme Oppression towards women and Shia Muslims Killed a US citizen Jamal Khashoggi US does nothing

Neo isolationism Belief that US and foreign countries involvement kept to minimum- let other countries determine their own fate Intervention- an attempt to directly influence politics and policy making of another country. Believe we should stay out of war with others Intervention is not welcomed by the other country US has bad experience with intervention- Philippines

Idealism & Liberalism Defending human rights guiding principle of idealism Promoting democracy Allying with oppressive governments would not achieve goals of human rights Liberalism A.K.A idealism Obama believed in this

US F.P. influenced by Machiavelli’s The Prince
It is better to be feared and respected than loved and respected. National security and advantage must be paramount. Morals, agreements, polices come second if they conflict with country’s goals US’s use of torture for info, secret prisons, wire taps, surveillance w/o warrant- Leader must try not deviate from good, but must be ruthless when necessary. Ends justify the means. Loved or Feared?

Tools of Foreign Policy
Diplomatic- 160 embassies across the world We do not have diplomatic relations with Iran or NK Just reopened the US Consulate in Cuba. Uses its position to help foreign nations settle conflicts peacefully Defense Alliance- agreement to come to another nations aid in the event of an attack Collective Security- one attacked we are all attacked Trump needs to

Deterrence Strategy of maintaining military might that is so great that just thinking about it will deter an attack on this country.

Major US Defense Alliances
NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization If attacked by Russia we come to country’s aid Only be enacted 1 time US after 9/11 we called in NATO Trump campaigned against NATO b/c some countries were not contributing 2% of GDP to defense Said it was a defunct organization- Russia wasn’t going to invade a NATO member Mission changing- France took lead role in Libya in ‘11 to carry out UN mission.

NATO today Leaders do not trust US commitment and feel jaded towards the US due to support of the War on Terror.

US/South Korea- Us has agreement to protect SK and we are Japan’s military WW2 peace treaty banned Japan from creating a military. US Provides troops and security Nuclear Umbrella- US agreement to protect non-nuclear powers so they do not develop their own.

Nuclear Weapons 9 nations have nuclear weapons US/Russia have 93% Cost
1,800 are on high alert status Cost $1.2 Trillion over the next 30 yrs to maintain and modernize Trump has prioritized updating US nuclear weapons Trump is expanding. Major problems w/Nuclear command Problems- John Oliver

MAD Mutually Assured Destruction
If you attack us with a Nuke- we will nuke you back. We all die!

Economic Sanctions Economic measures taken against a country to force it to change its policies Why? To show condemnation of some type of action and to get the country to stop said action NK launching ICBM Iran enriching uranium that could be used in a bomb Russia for meddling w/US elections Cuba being communist Um- but we trade with every other communist country.

Types of Economic Sanctions
Total ban on trade or restriction on certain trade items Cuba cigars (now you can) No foreign aid or restrictions on foreign aid No arms sales or limits on arms sales No loans US put sanctions or Iran

Pro/Con of Sanctions- Pro Con
The provide a peaceful nonmilitary foreign policy tools Con Sanctions that ban or limit trade can hurt the economy of sanctioning country Harms citizens especially middle and lower class Long term sanctions can harm the target country’s civilians populations when food and medical supplies are withheld Country’s just ignore

Different Doctrines Today
Aid those w/similar beliefs or have oil. Bush Doctrine- Nation has the right to conduct a preemptive war against any power that it believes poses a significant threat to the security of the US. Take them out before they attack.

Obama Doctrine Uses soft power over hard power.
Values sanctions over direct military clash Sanctions- a ban on trade, possibly limited to certain sectors such as armaments, or with certain exceptions (such as food and medicine Iran agreed to nuke deal. North Korea Drone warfare- more than any president, creates dangerous precedence for strikes If it is not a VITAL US interest we do not get involved.

How trump changed policy
Vox’s View- Trump’s view of Foreign Leaders

Trump Doctrine Give Military control to the generals- let them make decisions Invest in military Diplomacy is dumb. Pull back from Allies and embraced our rivals. Trump G20 Trump’s treatment of foreign leaders.

Other Leaders France- Emmanuel Macron now

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