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Unit 8: Acids & Bases. PART 1: Acid/Base Theory & Properties. I hereby define acids as compounds of oxygen and a nonmetal. (1777). In fact, I just named the newly discovered gas oxygen , which means “acid-former.”. Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (1777).

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Unit 8: Acids & Bases PART 1: Acid/Base Theory & Properties

I hereby define acids as compounds of oxygen and a nonmetal. (1777) In fact, I just named the newly discovered gas oxygen, which means “acid-former.” Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (1777)

Actually, one of the acids you worked with is composed entirely of hydrogen and chlorine (HCl). Humphry Davy (1818)

Awwwe SNAP! My definition won’t work since it is no longer valid for all acids. I guess I’ll go back to just being a tax collector. Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (1777)

The Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases: acids donate H+ in sol’n; bases donate OH- Commentary on Arrhenius Theory… One problem with the Arrhenius theory is that it’s not comprehensive enough. Some compounds act like acids and bases that don’t fit the standard definition.

BrØnsted-Lowry: a theory of proton transfer • A B-L ACID is a proton (H+) donor. • A B-L BASE is a proton (H+) acceptor.

Conjugate Pairs • Acids react to form bases and vice versa. • The acid-base pairs related to each other in this way are called conjugate acid-base pairs. • They differ by just one proton. base conj. acid HA + B A- + BH+ conj. base acid

Ex) List the conjugate acid-base pairs in the following reaction: CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) CH3COO-(aq) + H3O+(aq) conjugate pair acid base conj. base conj. acid conjugate pair

Ex) Write the conjugate base for each of the following. • H3O+ • NH3 • H2CO3 → H2O → NH2- → HCO3-

Ex) Write the conjugate acid for each of the following. • NO2- • OH- • CO32- → HNO2 → H2O → HCO3-

Amphoteric / amphiprotic substances • substances which can act as Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases, meaning they can either accept or donate a proton (capable of both). • The following features enable them to have this “double-identity:” • To act as a Bronsted-Lowry acid, they must be able to dissociate and release H+. • To act as a Bronsted-Lowry base, they must be able to accept H+, which means they must have a lone pair of electrons.

Amphoteric / amphiprotic substances • Water is a prime example – it can donate H+ and it has two lone pairs of electrons. • Auto-ionization of water: H2O + H2O H3O+ + OH- • Water reacting as a base with CH3COOH: CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) CH3COO- (aq) + H3O+(aq) • Water reacting as an acid with NH3: NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

Ex) Write equations to show HCO3- reacting with water (a) as an acid and (b) as a base. • To act as an acid, it donates H+ HCO3-(aq) + H2O(l) CO32-(aq) + H3O+(aq) • To act as a base, it accepts H+ HCO3-(aq) + H2O(l) H2CO3(aq) + OH-(aq)

The Lewis Theory of Acids and Bases A Lewis ACID is an electron pair acceptor. A Lewis BASE is an electron pair donor.

Lewis: a theory of electron pairs • Lewis acid-base reactions result in the formation of a covalent bond, which will always be a dative bond (a.k.a. coordinate covalent bond) because both the electrons come from the base.

Example: note – the “curly arrow” is a convention used to show donation of electons. Lewis acid Lewis base

Example: note – boron has an incomplete octet, so it is able to accept an electron pair Lewis acid Lewis base

Example: Cu2+(aq) + 6H2O(l) →[Cu(H2O)6]2+(aq) note – metals in the middle of the periodic table often form ions with vacant orbitals in their d subshell, so they are able to act as Lewis acids and accept lone pairs of electrons when they bond with ligands to form complex ions. Ligands, as donors of lone pairs, are therefore acting as Lewis bases Lewis acid Lewis base

Ligands • Typical ligands found in complex ions include H2O, CN- and NH3. • Note that they all have lone pairs of electrons, the defining feature of their Lewis base properties.

Acid-Base Theory Comparison Lewis acid Bronsted-Lowry acid

Ex: For each of the following reactions, identify the Lewis acid and the Lewis base. • 4NH3(aq) + Zn2+(aq) [Zn(NH3)4]2+(aq) • 2Cl-(aq) + BeCl2 (aq) + [BeCl4]2- (aq) • Mg2+(aq) + 6H2O(l) [Mg(H2O)6]2+(aq) acid base base acid acid base

Ex: Which of the following could not act as a ligand in a complex ion of a transition metal? • Cl- b) NCl3 c) PCl3 d) CH4 no lone pairs

Properties of acids and bases For acids and bases here, we will use the following definitions: • Acid:a substance that donates H+ in solution • Base:a substance that can neutralize an acid to produce water — includes metal oxides, hydroxides, ammonia, soluble carbonates (Na2CO3 and K2CO3) and hydrogencarbonates (NaHCO3 and KHCO3)

Properties of acids and bases • Alkali: a soluble base. When dissolved in water, alkalis all release the hydroxide ion, OH-For example: K2O(s) + H2O(l) 2K+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) CO32- (aq) + H2O(l) HCO3-(aq) + OH-(aq) HCO3-(aq) CO2(g) + OH-(aq) bases alkalis

Properties of acids and bases Neutralization: net ionic equation = H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l)

Acid-Base Indicators Acid-Base indicators change color reversibly according to the concentration of H+ ions in solution. HIn(aq) H+(aq) + In-(aq)

Acid-Base Indicators Many indicators are derived from natural substances such as extracts from flower petals and berries.

Acid-Base Indicators Litmus, a dye derived from lichens, can distinguish between acids and alkalis, but cannot indicate a particular pH.

Acid-Base Indicators For this purpose, universal indicator was created by mixing together several indicators; thus universal indicator changes color many times across a range of pH levels. 0 7 14

Acids react with metals, bases and carbonates to form salts… • Neutralization reactions with bases: acid + base salt + water a) with hydroxide bases NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) →

Acids react with metals, bases and carbonates to form salts… • Neutralization reactions with bases: acid + base salt + water b) With metal oxide bases CH3COOH(aq) + CuO(s) → Cu(CH3COO)2(aq) + H2O(l)

Acids react with metals, bases and carbonates to form salts… • Neutralization reactions with bases: acid + base salt + water c) With ammonia (via ammonium hydroxide) HNO3(aq) + NH4OH(aq) → NH4NO3(aq) + H2O(l)

Acids react with metals, bases and carbonates to form salts… 2) With reactive metals (those above copper in the reactivity series): acid + metal salt + hydrogen 2HCl(aq) + Zn(s) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) Mg(CH3COO)2(aq) + H2(g) 2CH3COOH(aq) + Mg(s) →

Acids react with metals, bases and carbonates to form salts… 3) With carbonates (soluble or insoluble) / hydrogencarbonates: acid + carbonate salt + water + carbon dioxide 2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) H2SO4(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) CH3COOH(aq) + KHCO3(aq) → KCH3COO(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

Strong, Concentrated and Corrosive In everyday English, strong and concentrated are often used interchangeably. In chemistry, they have distinct meanings: • strong: completely dissociated into ions • concentrated: high number of moles of solute per liter (dm3) of solution • corrosive: chemically reactive

Strong, Concentrated and Corrosive Similarly, weak and dilute also have very different chemical meanings: • weak: only slightly dissociated into ions • dilute: a low number of moles of solute per liter (dm3) of solution

Strong and Weak Acids and Bases • Consider the acid dissociation reaction: HA(aq) H+(aq) + A-(aq) • Strong acid: equilibrium lies to the right (acid dissociates fully) reversible rxn is negligible exists entirely as ions • Ex: HCl(aq) → H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

Strong and Weak Acids and Bases • Consider the acid dissociation reaction: HA(aq) H+(aq) + A-(aq) • Weak acid:equilibrium lies to the left (partial dissociation) exists almost entirely in the undissociated form • Ex: CH3COOH(aq) H+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq)

Strong and Weak Acids and Bases • Similarly, the strength of a base refers to its degree of dissociation in water. Strong base ex: Weak base ex: • NaOH(aq) → Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) • NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

Strong and Weak Acids and Bases • NOTE: Weak acids and bases are much more common than strong acids and bases.

NOTE: Sulfuric acid, H2SO4, is a diprotic acid which is strong in the dissociation of the first H+ and weak in the dissociation of the second H+. • For purposes of IB, only monoprotic dissociations are considered.

Experimental methods for distinguishing between strong and weak acids and bases • Electrical conductivity: strong acids and bases will have a higher conductivity (higher concentration of mobile ions) • Rate of reaction: faster rate of rxn with strong acids (higher concentration of ions) • pH: measure of H+ concentration in sol’n. A 1.0 M sol’n of strong acid will have lower pH than 1.0 M sol’n of weak acid; 1.0 M sol’n of strong base will have higher pH than 1.0 M sol’n of weak base

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