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The SAT question and answer service may 2016 The SAT question and answer service may 2016 The SAT question and answer service may 2016 The SAT question and answer service may 2016 The SAT question and answer service may 2016 The SAT question and answer service may 2016 The SAT question and answer service may 2016 The SAT question and answer service may 2016 The SAT question and answer service may 2016 The SAT question and answer service may 2016 The SAT question and answer service may 2016 Practice # Test Make time to take the practice test It’s one of the best ways to get ready for the SAT After you’ve taken the practice test, score it right away at sat.org/scoring © 2016 The College Board College Board, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board K-5MSA04 Test begins on the next page 1 Reading Test 65 M I NU TES, QUESTIONS Turn to Section of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section Each passage or pair of passages below is followed by a number of questions After reading each passage or pair, choose the best answer to each question based on what is stated or implied in the passage or passages and in any accompanying graphics (such as a table or graph) This passage is adapted from William Maxwell, The Folded Leaf ©1959 by William Maxwell Originally published in 1945 Line 10 15 20 25 The Alcazar Restaurant was on Sheridan Road near Devon Avenue It was long and narrow, with tables for two along the walls and tables for four down the middle The decoration was art moderne, except for the series of murals depicting the four seasons, and the sick ferns in the front window Lymie sat down at the second table from the cash register, and ordered his dinner The history book, which he propped against the catsup and the glass sugar bowl, had been used by others before him Blank pages front and back were filled in with maps, drawings, dates, comic cartoons, and organs of the body; also with names and messages no longer clear and never absolutely legible On nearly every other page there was some marginal notation, either in ink or in very hard pencil And unless someone had upset a glass of water, the marks on page 177 were from tears While Lymie read about the Peace of Paris, signed on the thirtieth of May, 1814, between France and the Allied powers, his right hand managed again and again to bring food up to his mouth Sometimes he chewed, sometimes he swallowed whole the food that he had no idea he was eating The Congress of Vienna met, with some allowance for delays, early in November of the same year, and all the powers engaged in the war on either side sent Unauthorized copying or reuse of any part of this page is illegal Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 plenipotentiaries It was by far the most splendid and important assembly ever convoked to discuss and determine the affairs of Europe The Emperor of Russia, the King of Prussia, the Kings of Bavaria, Denmark, and Wurttemberg, all were present in person at the court of the Emperor Francis I in the Austrian capital When Lymie put down his fork and began to count them off, one by one, on the fingers of his left hand, the waitress, whose name was Irma, thought he was through eating and tried to take his plate away He stopped her Prince Metternich (his right thumb) presided over the Congress, and Prince Talleyrand (the index finger) represented France A party of four, two men and two women, came into the restaurant, all talking at once, and took possession of the center table nearest Lymie The women had shingled hair and short tight skirts which exposed the underside of their knees when they sat down One of the women had the face of a young boy but disguised by one trick or another (rouge, lipstick, powder, wet bangs plastered against the high forehead, and a pair of long pendent earrings) to look like a woman of thirty-five, which as a matter of fact she was The men were older They laughed more than there seemed any occasion for, while they were deciding between soup and shrimp cocktail, and their laughter was too loud But it was the women’s voices, the terrible not quite sober pitch of the women’s voices which caused Lymie to skim over two whole pages without knowing what was on them Fortunately he realized this and went back Otherwise he might never have known about the CO NTI N U E 70 75 80 85 90 Over the course of the passage, the primary focus shifts from A) Lymie’s inner thoughts to observations made by the other characters B) an exchange between strangers to a satisfying personal relationship C) the physical setting of the scene to the different characters’ personality traits D) Lymie’s experience reading a book to descriptions of people in the restaurant Unauthorized copying or reuse of any part of this page is illegal 65 secret treaty concluded between England, France, and Austria, when the pretensions of Prussia and Russia, acting in concert, seemed to threaten a renewal of the attack The results of the Congress were stated clearly at the bottom of page 67 and at the top of page 68, but before Lymie got halfway through them, a coat that he recognized as his father’s was on the hook next to his chair Lymie closed the book and said, “I didn’t think you were coming.” Time is probably no more unkind to sporting characters than it is to other people, but physical decay unsustained by respectability is somehow more noticeable Mr Peters’ hair was turning gray and his scalp showed through on top He had lost weight also; he no longer filled out his clothes the way he used to His color was poor, and the flower had disappeared from his buttonhole In its place was an American Legion button Apparently he himself was not aware that there had been any change He straightened his tie self-consciously and when Irma handed him a menu, he gestured with it so that the two women at the next table would notice the diamond ring on the fourth finger of his right hand Both of these things, and also the fact that his hands showed signs of the manicurist, one can blame on the young man who had his picture taken with a derby hat on the back of his head, and also sitting with a girl in the curve of the moon The young man had never for one second deserted Mr Peters He was always there, tugging at Mr Peters’ elbow, making him things that were not becoming in a man of forty-five The main purpose of the first paragraph is to A) introduce the passage’s main character by showing his nightly habits B) indicate the date the passage takes place by presenting period details C) convey the passage’s setting by describing a place and an object D) foreshadow an event that is described in detail later in the passage It can reasonably be inferred that Irma, the waitress, thinks Lymie is “through eating” (line 37) because A) he has begun reading his book B) his plate is empty C) he is no longer holding his fork D) he has asked her to clear the table Lymie’s primary impression of the “party of four” (line 42) is that they A) are noisy and distracting B) are a refreshing change from the other customers C) resemble characters from his history book D) represent glamour and youth Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A) Lines 45-47 (“The women down”) B) Lines 47-52 (“One was”) C) Lines 55-59 (“But them”) D) Line 69 (“Lymie book”) CO NTI N U E The narrator indicates that Lymie finally closes the history book because A) his father has joined him at the table B) the people at the other table are too disruptive C) he has finished the chapter about the Congress D) he is preparing to leave the restaurant The primary impression created by the narrator’s description of Mr Peters in lines 74-79 is that he is A) healthy and fit B) angry and menacing C) nervous and hesitant D) aging and shriveled Unauthorized copying or reuse of any part of this page is illegal The main idea of the last paragraph is that Mr Peters A) neglects to spend any time with his family members B) behaves as if he is a younger version of himself C) is very conscious of symbols of wealth and power D) is preoccupied with the knowledge that he is growing old CO NTI N U E Which choice best supports the conclusion that Mr Peters wants to attract attention? A) Lines 80-81 (“Apparently change”) B) Lines 81-85 (“He straightened hand”) C) Lines 90-91 (“The young Mr Peters”) D) Lines 91-93 (“He was forty-five”) Unauthorized copying or reuse of any part of this page is illegal 10 As used in line 93, “becoming” most nearly means A) emerging B) fitting C) developing D) happening CO NTI N U E Passage is adapted from Catharine Beecher, Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism Originally published in 1837 Passage is adapted from Angelina E Grimké, Letters to Catharine Beecher Originally published in 1838 Grimké encouraged Southern women to oppose slavery publicly Passage is Beecher’s response to Grimké’s views Passage is Grimké’s response to Beecher Passage Line 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Heaven has appointed to one sex the superior, and to the other the subordinate station, and this without any reference to the character or conduct of either It is therefore as much for the dignity as it is for the interest of females, in all respects to conform to the duties of this relation But while woman holds a subordinate relation in society to the other sex, it is not because it was designed that her duties or her influence should be any the less important, or all-pervading But it was designed that the mode of gaining influence and of exercising power should be altogether different and peculiar A man may act on society by the collision of intellect, in public debate; he may urge his measures by a sense of shame, by fear and by personal interest; he may coerce by the combination of public sentiment; he may drive by physical force, and he does not outstep the boundaries of his sphere But all the power, and all the conquests that are lawful to woman, are those only which appeal to the kindly, generous, peaceful and benevolent principles Woman is to win every thing by peace and love; by making herself so much respected, esteemed and loved, that to yield to her opinions and to gratify her wishes, will be the free-will offering of the heart But this is to be all accomplished in the domestic and social circle There let every woman become so cultivated and refined in intellect, that her taste and judgment will be respected; so benevolent in feeling and action; that her motives will be reverenced;—so unassuming and unambitious, that collision and competition will be banished;—so “gentle and easy to be entreated,” as that every heart will repose in her presence; then, the fathers, the husbands, and the sons, will find an influence thrown around them, to which they will yield not only willingly but proudly A woman may seek the aid of co-operation and combination among her own sex, to assist her in her appropriate offices of piety, charity, maternal and Unauthorized copying or reuse of any part of this page is illegal Questions 11-21 are based on the following passages 45 domestic duty; but whatever, in any measure, throws a woman into the attitude of a combatant, either for herself or others—whatever binds her in a party conflict—whatever obliges her in any way to exert coercive influences, throws her out of her appropriate sphere If these general principles are correct, they are entirely opposed to the plan of arraying females in any Abolition movement Passage 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 The investigation of the rights of the slave has led me to a better understanding of my own I have found the Anti-Slavery cause to be the high school of morals in our land—the school in which human rights are more fully investigated, and better understood and taught, than in any other Here a great fundamental principle is uplifted and illuminated, and from this central light, rays innumerable stream all around Human beings have rights, because they are moral beings: the rights of all men grow out of their moral nature; and as all men have the same moral nature, they have essentially the same rights These rights may be wrested from the slave, but they cannot be alienated: his title to himself is as perfect now, as is that of Lyman Beecher:1 it is stamped on his moral being, and is, like it, imperishable Now if rights are founded in the nature of our moral being, then the mere circumstance of sex does not give to man higher rights and responsibilities, than to woman To suppose that it does, would be to deny the self-evident truth, that the “physical constitution is the mere instrument of the moral nature.” To suppose that it does, would be to break up utterly the relations, of the two natures, and to reverse their functions, exalting the animal nature into a monarch, and humbling the moral into a slave; making the former a proprietor, and the latter its property When human beings are regarded as moral beings, sex, instead of being enthroned upon the summit, administering upon rights and responsibilities, sinks into insignificance and nothingness My doctrine then is, that whatever it is morally right for man to do, it is morally right for woman to Our duties originate, not from difference of sex, but from the diversity of our relations in life, the various gifts and talents committed to our care, and the different eras in which we live Lyman Beecher was a famous minister and the father of Catharine Beecher CO NTI N U E In Passage 1, Beecher makes which point about the status of women relative to that of men? A) Women depend on men for their safety and security, but men are largely independent of women B) Women are inferior to men, but women play a role as significant as that played by men C) Women have fewer rights than men do, but women also have fewer responsibilities D) Women are superior to men, but tradition requires women to obey men 12 Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A) Lines 6-10 (“But all-pervading”) B) Lines 13-14 (“A man debate”) C) Lines 16-18 (“he may coerce sphere”) D) Lines 41-46 (“but whatever sphere”) 13 In Passage 1, Beecher implies that women’s effect on public life is largely A) overlooked, because few men are interested in women’s thoughts about politics B) indirect, because women exert their influence within the home and family life C) unnecessary, because men are able to govern society themselves D) symbolic, because women tend to be more idealistic about politics than men are 14 As used in line 2, “station” most nearly means A) region B) studio C) district D) rank Unauthorized copying or reuse of any part of this page is illegal 11 15 As used in line 12, “peculiar” most nearly means A) eccentric B) surprising C) distinctive D) infrequent 16 What is Grimké’s central claim in Passage 2? A) The rights of individuals are not determined by race or gender B) Men and women must learn to work together to improve society C) Moral rights are the most important distinction between human beings and animals D) Men and women should have equal opportunities to flourish 17 In Passage 2, Grimké makes which point about human rights? A) They are viewed differently in various cultures around the world B) They retain their moral authority regardless of whether they are recognized by law C) They are sometimes at odds with moral responsibilities D) They have become more advanced and refined throughout history 18 Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? A) Lines 58-61 (“Human same rights”) B) Lines 61-65 (“These imperishable”) C) Lines 71-76 (“To suppose property”) D) Lines 77-81 (“When nothingness”) CO NTI N U E Which choice best states the relationship between the two passages? A) Passage illustrates the practical difficulties of a proposal made in Passage B) Passage takes issue with the primary argument of Passage C) Passage provides a historical context for the perspective offered in Passage D) Passage elaborates upon several ideas implied in Passage 20 Based on the passages, both authors would agree with which of the following claims? A) Women have moral duties and responsibilities B) Men often work selflessly for political change C) The ethical obligations of women are often undervalued D) Political activism is as important for women as it is for men 21 Beecher would most likely have reacted to lines 65-68 (“Now woman”) of Passage with A) sympathy, because she feels that human beings owe each other a debt to work together in the world B) agreement, because she feels that human responsibilities are a natural product of human rights C) dismay, because she feels that women actually have a more difficult role to play in society than men D) disagreement, because she feels that the natures of men and women are fundamentally different Unauthorized copying or reuse of any part of this page is illegal 19 Questions 22-31 are based on the following passage and supplementary material This passage is adapted from Bryan Walsh, “Whole Food Blues: Why Organic Agriculture May Not Be So Sustainable.” ©2012 by Time Inc Line 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 When it comes to energy, everyone loves efficiency Cutting energy waste is one of those goals that both sides of the political divide can agree on, even if they sometimes diverge on how best to get there Energy efficiency allows us to get more out of our given resources, which is good for the economy and (mostly) good for the environment as well In an increasingly hot and crowded world, the only sustainable way to live is to get more out of less Every environmentalist would agree But change the conversation to food, and suddenly efficiency doesn’t look so good Conventional industrial agriculture has become incredibly efficient on a simple land to food basis Thanks to fertilizers, mechanization and irrigation, each American farmer feeds over 155 people worldwide Conventional farming gets more and more crop per square foot of cultivated land— over 170 bushels of corn per acre in Iowa, for example—which can mean less territory needs to be converted from wilderness to farmland And since a third of the planet is already used for agriculture—destroying forests and other wild habitats along the way—anything that could help us produce more food on less land would seem to be good for the environment Of course, that’s not how most environmentalists regard their arugula [a leafy green] They have embraced organic food as better for the planet—and healthier and tastier, too—than the stuff produced by agricultural corporations Environmentalists disdain the enormous amounts of energy needed and waste created by conventional farming, while organic practices—forgoing artificial fertilizers and chemical pesticides—are considered far more sustainable Sales of organic food rose 7.7% in 2010, up to $26.7 billion—and people are making those purchases for their consciences as much as their taste buds Yet a new meta-analysis in Nature does the math and comes to a hard conclusion: organic farming yields 25% fewer crops on average than conventional agriculture More land is therefore needed to produce fewer crops—and that means organic farming may not be as good for the planet as we think CO NTI N U E like terms results in 4x = 21 Finally, dividing both sides by gives x = 21 = 5.25 Either 21/4 or 5.25 can be gridded as the correct answer QUESTION 19 The correct answer is The given expression can be rewritten as equivalent to 2x x , which is ( x 2)2 ( x 2)2 2x 2x a , or This is in the form ; therefore, a = 2 ( x 2) ( x 2) ( x 2)2 QUESTION 20 The correct answer is 97 The intersecting lines form a triangle, and the angle with measure of x° is an exterior angle of this triangle The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the measures of the two nonadjacent interior angles of the triangle One of these angles has measure of 23° and the other, which is supplementary to the angle with measure 106, has measure of 180° − 106° = 74 Therefore, the value of x is 23 + 74 = 97 Section 4: Math Test – Calculator QUESTION Choice D is correct The change in the number of 3-D movies released between any two consecutive years can be found by first estimating the number of 3-D movies released for each of the two years and then finding the positive difference between these two estimates Between 2003 and 2004, this change is approximately − = movies; between 2008 and 2009, this change is approximately 20 − = 12 movies; between 2009 and 2010, this change is approximately 26 − 20 = movies; and between 2010 and 2011, this change is approximately 46 − 26 = 20 movies Therefore, of the pairs of consecutive years in the choices, the greatest increase in the number of 3-D movies released occurred during the time period between 2010 and 2011 Choices A, B, and C are incorrect Between 2010 and 2011, approximately 20 more 3-D movies were released The change in the number of 3-D movies released between any of the other pairs of consecutive years is significantly smaller than 20 QUESTION Choice C is correct Because f is a linear function of x, the equation f(x) = mx + b, where m and b are constants, can be used to define the relationship between x and f(x) In this equation, m represents the increase in the value of f(x) for every increase in the value of x by From the table, it can be determined that the value of f(x) increases by for every increase in the value of x by In other words, for the function f the value of m is , or The value of b can be found by substituting the values of x and f(x) from any row of the table and the value of m into the equation f(x) = mx + b and solving for b For example, using x = 1, f(x) = 5, and m = yields = 4(1) + b Solving for b yields b = Therefore, the equation defining the function f can be written in the form f(x) = 4x + Choices A, B, and D are incorrect Any equation defining the linear function f must give values of f(x) for corresponding values of x, as shown in each row of the table According to the table, if x = 3, f(x) = 13 However, substituting x = into the equation given in choice A gives f(3) = 2(3) + 3, or f(3) = 9, not 13 Similarly, substituting x = into the equation given in choice B gives f(3) = 3(3) + 2, or f(3) = 11, not 13 Lastly, substituting x = into the equation given in choice D gives f(3) = 5(3), or f(3) = 15, not 13 Therefore, the equations in choices A, B, and D cannot define f QUESTION Choice A is correct If 2.5 ounces of chocolate are needed for each muffin, then the number of ounces of chocolate needed to make 48 muffins is 48 × 2.5 = 120 ounces Since pound = 16 ounces, the number of pounds that is equivalent to 120 ounces is 120 = 7.5 pounds Therefore, 16 7.5 pounds of chocolate are needed to make the 48 muffins Choice B is incorrect If 10 pounds of chocolate were needed to make 48 muffins, then the total number of ounces of chocolate needed would be 10 × 16 = 160 ounces The number of ounces of chocolate per muffin would then be 160 = 3.33 ounces per muffin, not 2.5 ounces per 48 muffin Choices C and D are also incorrect Following the same procedures as used to test choice B gives 16.8 ounces per muffin for choice C and 40 ounces per muffin for choice D, not 2.5 ounces per muffin Therefore, 50.5 and 120 pounds cannot be the number of pounds needed to make 48 signature chocolate muffins QUESTION Choice B is correct The value of c + d can be found by dividing both sides of the given equation by This yields c + d = Choice A is incorrect If the value of c + d is 3 , then × = 5; however, is not equal to 5 5 Choice C is incorrect If the value of c + d is 3, then × = 5; however, is not equal to Choice D is incorrect If the value of c + d is 5, then × = 5; however, 15 is not equal to QUESTION Choice C is correct The weight of an object on Venus is approximately of its weight on 10 Earth If an object weighs 100 pounds on Earth, then the object’s weight on Venus is given by 23 of its weight on 100 = 90 pounds The same object’s weight on Jupiter is approximately 10 10 23 Earth; therefore, the object weighs 100 = 230 pounds on Jupiter The difference between 10 the object’s weight on Jupiter and the object’s weight on Venus is 230 − 90 = 140 pounds Therefore, an object that weighs 100 pounds on Earth weighs 140 more pounds on Jupiter than it weighs on Venus Choice A is incorrect because it is the weight, in pounds, of the object on Venus Choice B is incorrect because it is the weight, in pounds, of an object on Earth if it weighs 100 pounds on Venus Choice D is incorrect because it is the weight, in pounds, of the object on Jupiter QUESTION Choice B is correct Let n be the number of novels and m be the number of magazines that Sadie purchased If Sadie purchased a total of 11 novels and magazines, then n + m = 11 It is given that the combined price of 11 novels and magazines is $20 Since each novel sells for $4 and each magazine sells for $1, it follows that 4n + m = 20 So the system of equations below must hold 4n + m = 20 n + m = 11 Subtracting side by side the second equation from the first equation yields 3n = 9, so n = Therefore, Sadie purchased novels Choice A is incorrect If novels were purchased, then a total of $8 was spent on novels That leaves $12 to be spent on magazines, which means that 12 magazines would have been purchased However, Sadie purchased a total of 11 novels and magazines Choices C and D are incorrect If novels were purchased, then a total of $16 was spent on novels That leaves $4 to be spent on magazines, which means that magazines would have been purchased By the same logic, if Sadie purchased novels, she would have no money at all ($0) to buy magazines However, Sadie purchased a total of 11 novels and magazines QUESTION Choice A is correct The DBA plans to increase its membership by n businesses each year, so x years from now, the association plans to have increased its membership by nx businesses Since there are already b businesses at the beginning of this year, the total number of businesses, y, the DBA plans to have as members x years from now is modeled by y = nx + b Choice B is incorrect The equation given in choice B correctly represents the increase in membership x years from now as nx However, the number of businesses at the beginning of the year, b, has been subtracted from this amount of increase, not added to it Choices C and D are incorrect because they use exponential models to represent the increase in membership Since the membership increases by n businesses each year, this situation is correctly modeled by a linear relationship QUESTION Choice C is correct The first expression (1.5x − 2.4)2 can be rewritten as (1.5x − 2.4)(1.5x − 2.4) Applying the distributive property to this product yields (2.25×2 − 3.6x − 3.6x + 5.76) − (5.2×2 − 6.4) This difference can be rewritten as (2.25×2 − 3.6x − 3.6x + 5.76) + (−1)(5.2×2 − 6.4) Distributing the factor of −1 through the second expression yields 2.25×2 − 3.6x − 3.6x + 5.76 − 5.2×2 + 6.4 Regrouping like terms, the expression becomes (2.25×2 − 5.2×2) + (−3.6x − 3.6x) + (5.76 + 6.4) Combining like terms yields −2.95×2 − 7.2x + 12.16 Choices A, B, and D are incorrect and likely result from errors made when applying the distributive property or combining the resulting like terms QUESTION Choice B is correct In 1908, the marathon was lengthened by 42 − 40 = kilometers Since mile is approximately 1.6 kilometers, the increase of kilometers can be converted to miles by multiplying as shown: kilometers 1mile 1.25miles 1.6kilometers Choices A, C, and D are incorrect and may result from errors made when applying the conversion rate or other computational errors QUESTION 10 Choice A is correct The density d of an object can be found by dividing the mass m of the object by its volume V Symbolically this is expressed by the equation d m Solving this V equation for m yields m = dV Choices B, C, and D are incorrect and are likely the result of errors made when translating the definition of density into an algebraic equation and errors made when solving this equation for m If the equations given in choices B, C, and D are each solved for density d, none of the resulting equations are equivalent to d m V QUESTION 11 Choice A is correct The equation −2x + 3y = can be rewritten in the slope-intercept form as follows: y = 2 x + So the slope of the graph of the given equation is In the xy-plane, when 3 two nonvertical lines are perpendicular, the product of their slopes is −1 So, if m is the slope of 2 x + 2, then m × = −1, which yields m = 3 3 Of the given choices, only the equation in choice A can be rewritten in the form y = x + 2 a line perpendicular to the line with equation y = b, for some constant b Therefore, the graph of the equation in choice A is perpendicular to the graph of the given equation Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because the graphs of the equations in these choices have 3 slopes, respectively, of , , and , not QUESTION 12 Choice D is correct Adding the two equations side by side eliminates y and yields x = 6, as shown y4 x y 2 x0 If (x, y) is a solution to the system, then (x, y) satisfies both equations in the system and any equation derived from them Therefore, x = Choices A, B, and C are incorrect and may be the result of errors when solving the system QUESTION 13 Choice D is correct Any point (x, y) that is a solution to the given system of inequalities must satisfy both inequalities in the system Since the second inequality in the system can be rewritten as y < x − 1, the system is equivalent to the following system y 3x y x 1 Since 3x + > x − for x > −1 and 3x + ≤ x − for x ≤ −1, it follows that y < x − for x > −1 and y ≤ 3x + for x ≤ −1 Of the given choices, only (2, −1) satisfies these conditions because −1 < − = Alternate approach: Substituting (2, −1) into the first inequality gives −1 ≤ 3(2) + 1, or −1 ≤ 7, which is a true statement Substituting (2, −1) into the second inequality gives − (−1) > 1, or > 1, which is a true statement Therefore, since (2, −1) satisfies both inequalities, it is a solution to the system Choice A is incorrect because substituting −2 for x and −1 for y in the first inequality gives −1 ≤ 3(−2) + 1, or −1 ≤ −5, which is false Choice B is incorrect because substituting −1 for x and for y in the first inequality gives ≤ 3(−1) + 1, or ≤ −2, which is false Choice C is incorrect because substituting for x and for y in the first inequality gives ≤ 3(1) + 1, or ≤ 4, which is false QUESTION 14 Choice A is correct According to the table, 74 orthopedic surgeons indicated that research is their major professional activity Since a total of 607 surgeons completed the survey, it follows that the probability that the randomly selected surgeon is an orthopedic surgeon whose indicated major professional activity is research is 74 out of 607, or 74/607, which is 0.122 Choices B, C, and D are incorrect and may be the result of finding the probability that the randomly selected surgeon is an orthopedic surgeon whose major professional activity is teaching (choice B), an orthopedic surgeon whose major professional activity is either teaching or research (choice C), or a general surgeon or orthopedic surgeon whose major professional activity is research (choice D) QUESTION 15 Choice A is correct Statement I need not be true The fact that 78% of the 1,000 adults who were surveyed responded that they were satisfied with the air quality in the city does not mean that the exact same percentage of all adults in the city will be satisfied with the air quality in the city Statement II need not be true because random samples, even when they are of the same size, are not necessarily identical with regard to percentages of people in them who have a certain opinion Statement III need not be true for the same reason that statement II need not be true: results from different samples can vary The variation may be even bigger for this sample since it would be selected from a different city Therefore, none of the statements must be true Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because none of the statements must be true QUESTION 16 Choice D is correct According to the given information, multiplying a tree species’ growth factor by the tree’s diameter is a method to approximate the age of the tree Multiplying the growth factor, 4.0, of the American elm given in the table by the given diameter of 12 inches yields an approximate age of 48 years Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because they not result from multiplying the given diameter of an American elm tree with that tree species’ growth factor QUESTION 17 Choice D is correct The growth factor of a tree species is approximated by the slope of a line of best fit that models the relationship between diameter and age A line of best fit can be visually estimated by identifying a line that goes in the same direction of the data and where roughly half the given data points fall above and half the given data points fall below the line Two points that fall on the line can be used to estimate the slope and y-intercept of the equation of a line of best fit Estimating a line of best fit for the given scatterplot could give the points (11, 80) and (15, 110) Using these two points, the slope of the equation of the line of best fit can be calculated as 110 80 , or 7.5 The slope of the equation is interpreted as the growth factor for a 15 11 species of tree According to the table, the species of tree with a growth factor of 7.5 is shagbark hickory Choices A, B, and C are incorrect and likely result from errors made when estimating a line of best fit for the given scatterplot and its slope QUESTION 18 Choice C is correct According to the given information, multiplying a tree species’ growth factor by the tree’s diameter is a method to approximate the age of the tree A white birch with a diameter of 12 inches (or foot) has a given growth factor of and is approximately 60 years old A pin oak with a diameter of 12 inches (or foot) has a given growth factor of and is approximately 36 years old The diameters of the two trees 10 years from now can be found by dividing each tree’s age in 10 years, 70 years, and 46 years, by its respective growth factor This yields 14 inches and 15 inches The difference between 15 1 and 14 is , or approximately 3 1.3 inches Choices A, B, and D are incorrect and a result of incorrectly calculating the diameters of the two trees in 10 years QUESTION 19 Choice B is correct Triangles ADB and CDB are congruent to each other because they are both 30°-60°-90° triangles and share the side BD In triangle ADB, side AD is opposite to the angle 30°; therefore, the length of AD is half the length of hypotenuse AB Since the triangles are congruent, AB = BC = 12 So the length of AD is 12 Choice A is incorrect If the length of AD were 4, then the length of AB would be However, this is incorrect because AB is congruent to BC , which has a length of 12 Choices C and D are also incorrect Following the same procedures as used to test choice A gives AB a length of 12 for choice C and 12 for choice D However, these results cannot be true because AB is congruent to BC , which has a length of 12 QUESTION 20 Choice D is correct The graph on the right shows the change in distance from the ground of the mark on the rim over time The y-intercept of the graph corresponds to the mark’s position at the start of the motion (t = 0); at this moment, the mark is at its highest point from the ground As the wheel rolls, the mark approaches the ground, its distance from the ground decreasing until it reaches 0—the point where it touches the ground After that, the mark moves up and away from the ground, its distance from the ground increasing until it reaches its maximum height from the ground This is the moment when the wheel has completed a full rotation The remaining part of the graph shows the distance of the mark from the ground during the second rotation of the wheel Therefore, of the given choices, only choice D is in agreement with the given information Choice A is incorrect because the speed at which the wheel is rolling does not change over time, meaning the graph representing the speed would be a horizontal line Choice B is incorrect because the distance of the wheel from its starting point to its ending point increases continuously; the graph shows a quantity that changes periodically over time, alternately decreasing and increasing Choice C is incorrect because the distance of the mark from the center of the wheel is constant and equals the radius of the wheel The graph representing this distance would be a horizontal line, not the curved line of the graph shown QUESTION 21 Choice A is correct The equation can be rewritten as < and b > 0, it follows that b b c , or equivalently c Since a a a b , and so − c < 0, or equivalently c > a Choice B is incorrect If c = 1, then a − b = a, or b = But it is given that b > 0, so c = cannot be true Choice C is incorrect If c = −1, then a − b = −a, or 2a = b But this equation contradicts the premise that a < and b > 0, so c = −1 cannot be true Choice D is incorrect For example, if c = −2, then a − b = −2a, or 3a = b But this contradicts the fact that a and b have opposite signs, so c < −1 cannot be true QUESTION 22 Choice C is correct It is given that 34.6% of 26 students in Mr Camp’s class reported that they had at least two siblings Since 34.6% of 26 is 8.996, there must have been students in the class who reported having at least two siblings and 17 students who reported that they had fewer than two siblings It is also given that the average eighth-grade class size in the state is 26 and that Mr Camp’s class is representative of all eighth-grade classes in the state This means that in each eighth-grade class in the state there are about 17 students who have fewer than two siblings Therefore, the best estimate of the number of eighth-grade students in the state who have fewer than two siblings is 17 × (number of eighth-grade classes in the state), or 17 × 1,800 = 30,600 Choice A is incorrect because 16,200 is the best estimate for the number of eighth-grade students in the state who have at least, not fewer than, two siblings Choice B is incorrect because 23,400 is half of the estimated total number of eighth-grade students in the state; however, since the students in Mr Camp’s class are representative of students in the eighthgrade classes in the state and more than half of the students in Mr Camp’s class have fewer than two siblings, more than half of the students in each eighth-grade class in the state have fewer than two siblings, too Choice D is incorrect because 46,800 is the estimated total number of eighth-grade students in the state QUESTION 23 Choice D is correct The linear function that represents the relationship will be in the form r(p) = ap + b, where a and b are constants and r(p) is the monthly rental price, in dollars, of a property that was purchased with p thousands of dollars According to the table, (70, 515) and (450, 3,365) are ordered pairs that should satisfy the function, which leads to the system of equations below 70a b 515 450a b 3,365 Subtracting side by side the first equation from the second eliminates b and gives 380a = 2,850; solving for a gives a 2,850 7.5 Substituting 7.5 for a in the first equation of the system gives 380 525 + b = 515; solving for b gives b = −10 Therefore, the linear function that represents the relationship is r(p) = 7.5p − 10 Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because the coefficient of p, or the rate at which the rental price, in dollars, increases for every thousand-dollar increase of the purchase price is different from what is suggested by these choices For example, the Glenview Street property was purchased for $140,000, but the rental price that each of the functions in these choices provides is significantly off from the rental price given in the table, $1,040 QUESTION 24 Choice B is correct Let x be the original price, in dollars, of the Glenview Street property After the 40% discount, the price of the property became 0.6x dollars, and after the additional 20% off the discounted price, the price of the property became 0.8(0.6x) Thus, in terms of the original price of the property, x, the purchase price of the property is 0.48x It follows that 0.48x = 140,000 Solving this equation for x gives x 291,666.6 Therefore, of the given choices, $291,700 best approximates the original price of the Glenview Street property Choice A is incorrect because it is the result of dividing the purchase price of the property by 0.4, as though the purchase price were 40% of the original price Choice C is incorrect because it is the closest to dividing the purchase price of the property by 0.6, as though the purchase price were 60% of the original price Choice D is incorrect because it is the result of dividing the purchase price of the property by 0.8, as though the purchase price were 80% of the original price QUESTION 25 Choice D is correct Of the first 150 participants, 36 chose the first picture in the set, and of the 150 remaining participants, p chose the first picture in the set Hence, the proportion of the 36 p Since more than 20% of all the 300 36 p participants chose the first picture, it follows that 0.20 This inequality can be 300 participants who chose the first picture in the set is rewritten as p + 36 > 0.20(300) Since p is a number of people among the remaining 150 participants, p ≤ 150 Choices A, B, and C are incorrect and may be the result of some incorrect interpretations of the given information or of computational errors QUESTION 26 Choice B is correct A cube has faces of equal area, so if the total surface area of a cube is 2 a a , then the area of one face is Likewise, the area of one face of a cube is the square 4 4 a of one of its sides; therefore, if the area of one face is , then the length of one side of the 4 cube is a Since the perimeter of one face of a cube is four times the length of one side, the a perimeter is a Choice A is incorrect because if the perimeter of one face of the cube is a , then the total a a surface area of the cube is , which is not 16 4 a Choice C is incorrect because if 4 the perimeter of one face of the cube is 4a, then the total surface area of the cube is 2 4a a 6a , which is not Choice D is incorrect because if the perimeter of one face of 4 2 6a 3a the cube is 6a, then the total surface area of the cube is , which is not QUESTION 27 a 6 4 Choice C is correct If the mean score of players is 14.5, then the total of all scores is 14.5 × = 116 If the mean of scores is 12, then the total of all scores is 12 × = 84 Since the set of scores was made by removing the highest score of the set of scores, then the difference between the total of all scores and the total of all scores is equal to the removed score: 116 − 84 = 32 Choice A is incorrect because if 20 is removed from the group of scores, then the mean score of the remaining players is 14.5 8 20 13.71 , not 12 Choice B is incorrect because if 24 is removed from the group of scores, then the mean score of the remaining players is 14.5 8 24 13.14 , not 12 Choice D is incorrect because if 36 is removed from the group of scores, then the mean score of the remaining players is 14.5 8 36 11.43 , not 12 QUESTION 28 Choice C is correct The slope of a line is rise and can be calculated using the coordinates of run any two points on the line For example, the graph of f passes through the points (0, 3) and (2, 4), so the slope of the graph of f is 43 The slope of the graph of function g is times the 20 slope of the graph of f, so the slope of the graph of g is Since the point (0, −4) is the y-intercept of g, g is defined as g(x) = 2x − It follows that g(9) = 2(9) − = 14 Choice A is incorrect because if g(9) = 5, then the slope of the graph of function g is 4 1, 09 which is not times the slope of the graph of f Choices B and D are also incorrect The same procedures used to test choice A yields 4 13 4 18 22 and for the slope of the graph 09 09 of g for choices B and D, respectively Neither of these slopes is times the slope of the graph of f QUESTION 29 Choice B is correct The standard equation of a circle in the xy-plane is of the form (x − h)2 + (y − k)2 = r2, where (h, k) are the coordinates of the center of the circle and r is the radius To convert the given equation to the standard form, complete the squares The first two terms need a 100 to complete the square, and the second two terms need a 64 Adding 100 and 64 to both sides of the given equation yields (x2 + 20x + 100) + (y2 + 16y + 64) = −20 + 100 + 64, which is equivalent to (x + 10)2 + (y + 8)2 = 144 Therefore, the coordinates of the center of the circle are (−10, −8) Choice A is incorrect and is likely the result of not properly dividing when attempting to complete the square Choice C is incorrect and is likely the result of making a sign error when evaluating the coordinates of the center Choice D is incorrect and is likely the result of not properly dividing when attempting to complete the square and making a sign error when evaluating the coordinates of the center QUESTION 30 Choice B is correct The given equation can be thought of as the difference of two squares, a Using the difference of squares formula, a x a where one square is x and the other square is the equation can be rewritten as y x Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because they are not equivalent to the given equation Choice A is incorrect because it is equivalent to y = x2 − a2 Choice C is incorrect because it is equivalent to y x a2 Choice D is incorrect because it is equivalent to y = x2 + 2ax + a2 QUESTION 31 The correct answer is 1492 Let x be the number of watts that is equal to horsepower Since horsepower is equal to 3730 watts, it follows that 5x = 7460, or x = x Solving this proportion for x yields 3730 7460 = 1492 QUESTION 32 The correct answer is 29 It is given that the height of the original painting is 29 inches and the reproduction’s height is the original height One-third of 29 is 29 , or 9.6 Either the fraction 3 29/3 or the decimals 9.66 or 9.67 can be gridded as the correct answer QUESTION 33 The correct answer is It is given that PQ = RS, and the diagram shows that PQ = x − and RS = 3x − Therefore, the equation x − = 3x − must be true Solving this equation for x leads to 2x = 6, so x = The length of segment PS is the sum of the lengths of PQ, QR, and RS, which is (x − 1) + x + (3x − 7), or equivalently 5x − Substituting for x in this expression gives 5(3) − = QUESTION 34 The correct answer is Since the point (2, 5) lies on the graph of y = f(x) in the xy-plane, the ordered pair (2, 5) must satisfy the equation y = f(x) That is, = f(2), or = k − 22 This equation simplifies to = k − Therefore, the value of the constant k is QUESTION 35 The correct answer is 13 Let w represent the width of the rectangular garden, in feet Since the length of the garden will be feet longer than the width of the garden, the length of the garden will be w + feet Thus the area of the garden will be w(w + 5) It is also given that the area of the garden will be 104 square feet Therefore, w(w + 5) = 104, which is equivalent to w2 + 5w − 104 = The quadratic formula can be used or the equation above can be factored to result in (w + 13)(w − 8) = Therefore, w = and w = −13 Because width cannot be negative, the width of the garden must be feet This means the length of the garden must be + = 13 feet QUESTION 36 The correct answer is 80 The measure of an angle inscribed in a circle is half the measure of the central angle that intercepts the same arc That is, mÐA = x° Also, the sum of the interior angles of quadrilateral ABCP is 360°, and the measure of the obtuse angle P is 360° − x° Hence, x x 20 (360 x) 20 360 Simplifying this equation gives 40 , and so x = 80 2 Alternate approach: If points A and P are joined, then the triangles that will be formed, APB and APC, are isosceles because PA = PB = PC It follows that the base angles on both triangles each have measure of 20° Angle A consists of two base angles, and therefore, mA 40 Since the measure of an angle inscribed in a circle is half the measure of the central angle that intercepts the same arc, it follows that the value of x is 80° QUESTION 37 The correct answer is 43.5, 43, or 44 The distance from Ms Simon’s home to her workplace is 0.6 + 15.4 + 1.4 = 17.4 miles Ms Simon took 24 minutes to drive this distance Since there are 60 minutes in one hour, her average speed, in miles per hour, for this trip is = 43.5 miles per hour Based on the directions, 87/2 or 43.5 can be gridded as the correct answer We are accepting 43 and 44 as additional correct answers because the precision of the measurements provided does not support an answer with three significant digits QUESTION 38 The correct answer is Ms Simon travels 15.4 miles on the freeway, and her average speed for this portion of the trip is 50 miles per hour when there is no traffic delay Therefore, when there is no traffic delay, Ms Simon spends 15.4 miles = 0.308 hours on the freeway Since there 50 mph are 60 minutes in one hour, she spends (0.308)(60) = 18.48 minutes on the freeway when there is no delay Leaving at 7:00 a.m results in a trip that is 33% longer, and 33% of 18.48 minutes is 6.16; the travel time for each of the other two segments does not change Therefore, rounded to the nearest minute, it takes Ms Simon more minutes to drive to her workplace when she leaves at 7:00 a.m … one sex the superior, and to the other the subordinate station, and this without any reference to the character or conduct of either It is therefore as much for the dignity as it is for the interest… around the fossil and brought it to their lab D) In removing the fossil from the rock, the team found it was too delicate; then they dug up a block of stone around the fossil and brought it to their… along the walls and tables for four down the middle The decoration was art moderne, except for the series of murals depicting the four seasons, and the sick ferns in the front window Lymie sat

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