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The Production Possibilities Curve

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The Production Possibilities Curve (PPC) Using Economic Models…
Step 1: Explain concept in words Step 2: Use numbers as examples Step 3: Generate graphs from numbers Step 4: Make generalizations using graph

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What is the Production Possibilities Curve?
A production possibilities curve (PPC) is a model that shows alternative ways that an economy can use its scarce resources This model graphically demonstrates scarcity, trade-offs, opportunity costs, and efficiency. 4 Key Assumptions Only two goods can be produced Full employment of resources Fixed Resources (Ceteris Paribus) Fixed Technology

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Production “Possibilities” Table
f 14 12 9 5 2 4 6 8 10 Bikes Computers Each point represents a specific combination of goods that can be produced given full employment of resources. NOW GRAPH IT: Put bikes on y-axis and computers on x-axis

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Production Possibilities
How does the PPG graphically demonstrates scarcity, trade-offs, opportunity costs, and efficiency? 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Impossible/Unattainable (given current resources) A B G C Bikes Efficient D Inefficient/ Unemployment E Computers

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Opportunity Cost 1. The opportunity cost of moving from a to b is…
Example: 1. The opportunity cost of moving from a to b is… 2.The opportunity cost of moving from b to d is… 3.The opportunity cost of moving from d to b is… 4.The opportunity cost of moving from f to c is… 5.What can you say about point G? Unattainable

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Production Possibilities
A B C D E CALZONES PIZZA List the Opportunity Cost of moving from a-b, b-c, c-d, and d-e. Constant Opportunity Cost- Resources are easily adaptable for producing either good. Result is a straight line PPC (not common)

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Production Possibilities
A B C D E PIZZA ROBOTS List the Opportunity Cost of moving from a-b, b-c, c-d, and d-e. Law of Increasing Opportunity Cost- As you produce more of any good, the opportunity cost (forgone production of another good) will increase. Why? Resources are NOT easily adaptable to producing both goods. Result is a bowed out (Concave) PPC All are making pizzas, so best robot makers shift over. As more gets used the less qualified robot makers get moved over.

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Constant vs. Increasing Opportunity Cost
Identify which product would have a straight line PPC and which would be bowed out? Corn Cactus Wheat Pineapples

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PER UNIT Opportunity Cost How much each marginal unit costs
Units Gained Example: 1. The PER UNIT opportunity cost of moving from a to b is… 2.The PER UNIT opportunity cost of moving from b to c is… 3.The PER UNIT opportunity cost of moving from c to d is… 4.The PER UNIT opportunity cost of moving from d to e is… NOTICE: Increasing Opportunity Costs

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The Production Possibilities Curve and Efficiency

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Two Types of Efficiency
Productive Efficiency- Products are being produced in the least costly way. This is any point ON the Production Possibilities Curve Allocative Efficiency- The products being produced are the ones most desired by society. This optimal point on the PPC depends on the desires of society. 12

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Productive and Allocative Efficiency
Which points are productively efficient? Which are allocatively efficient? 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Productively Efficient combinations are A through D A B G Allocative Efficient combinations depend on the wants of society (What if this represents a country with no electricity?) Bikes C E F D Computers 13

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Why two types of efficiency? Is combination “A” efficient?
Yes and No. It is productively efficient but it is not the combination society wants Size 20 running shoes A Size 10 running shoes

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Shifting the Production Possibilities Curve

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3 Shifters of the PPC Production Possibilities
4 Key Assumptions Revisited Only two goods can be produced Full employment of resources Fixed Resources (4 Factors) Fixed Technology What if there is a change? 3 Shifters of the PPC 1. Change in resource quantity or quality 2. Change in Technology 3. Change in Trade

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Production Possibilities
What happens if there is an increase in population? Robots Pizzas

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Production Possibilities
What happens if there is an increase in population? Robots Pizzas 18

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Production Possibilities
What if there is a technology improvement in pizza ovens Robots Pizzas 19

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Production Possibilities
What if there is a technology improvement in pizza ovens Robots All shifts must include the arrow Pizzas 20

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Capital Goods and Future Growth
Countries that produce more capital goods will have more growth in the future. Panama – Favors Consumer Goods Mexico – Favors Capital Goods Current PPC Future PPC Future PPC Capital Goods Capital Goods: Capital goods will create greater growth in the future Current PPC Capital Goods Consumer goods Consumer goods Panama Mexico

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Scarcity Means There Is Not Enough For Everyone
Government must step in to help allocate (distribute) resources

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10 students need to get off the bus
Scarcity Bus Ride Scenario: A group of 40 college students get on a bus to go to a dance 30 miles away. Shortly after leaving, the bus finds that it is two heavy to go over a large hill 10 students need to get off the bus You and your partner need to find 5 different ways to decide who should get off the bus. Are any of the solutions fair? How are resources allocated in communism? How are resources allocated in capitalism? What role do prices play in capitalism?

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The Three Economic Questions
Every society must answer three questions: The Three Economic Questions What goods and services should be produced? How should these goods and services be produced? Who consumes these goods and services? The way these questions are answered determines the economic system An economic system is the method used by a society to produce and distribute goods and services.

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