The Impacts of Urbanisation and Climate Change on the Urban Thermal Environment in Africa



1. Introduction

1.1. Global Urbanisation and Climate Change

1.2. Urban Thermal Environment

1.3. Data Analysis and Tools

1.4. Urban Thermal Environment Analysis at Different Scales

1.5. Current Research Status

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Aim

2.2. Method

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Study Distribution

3.1.1. Urban Thermal Environment Studies at Regional Scales

3.1.2. Urban Thermal Environment Studies at City-Scales

3.2. Drivers of Changes to the Urban Thermal Environment

3.2.1. Land Use and Land Cover (LULC)

3.2.2. Building Materials

3.2.3. Morphology

3.2.4. Other Factors

3.3. Risks and Solutions

3.3.1. Heat-Related Risks

3.3.2. Solutions

4. Conclusions

Author Contributions


Data Availability Statement


Conflicts of Interest


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Sensor Dataset Availability Spatial




Aqua MODIS 2002 1000 m Twice daily
CBERS 1 IRMSS 1999–2003 160 m 26 days
CBERS 2 IRMSS 2003–2009 160 m 26 days
CBERS 2B IRMSS 2007–2010 160 m 26 days
CBERS 4 IRS 2014–present 80 m 26 days
CBERS 4A IRS 2019–present 80 m 31 days
Envisat AATSR 2002–2012 1000 m 35 days
HJ-1B IRMSS 2008–2018 300 m 31 days
HJ-2A and HJ-2B IRMSS-2 (HJ) 2020–present 300 m 4 days
Landsat 4 TM 1982–1993 Collected at 100 m and resampled to 30 m 16 days
Landsat 5 TM 1984–2011 Collected at 100 m and resampled to 30 m 16 days
Landsat 7 ETM+ 1999–present Collected at 60 m and resampled to 30 m 16 days
Landsat 8 TIRS 2013–present Collected at 100 m and resampled to 30 m 16 days
Landsat 9 TIRS 2021–present Collected at 100 m and resampled to 30 m 16 days
METOP-A, B, C AVHRR 2 2006–present 1100 m 29 days
NOAA 6, 8 10, TIROS-N AVHRR 1978–2001 1100 m Twice daily
NOAA 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 AVHRR 2 1981–2007 1100 m Twice daily
NOAA 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 AVHRR 3 1998–present 1100 m Twice daily
Sentinel3 SLSTR 2016–present 1000 m 2016-present
Terra MODIS 1999–present 1000 m Twice daily
City Name Country Study Period Major Data Data Processing Tools Study Result Author
Accra Ghana 1991, 2002,2017(Landsat)


Landsat, In-situ QGIS SUHI increasing [49]
Addis Ababa Ethiopia 1960–2080 Google Earth, Landsat, HadCM3 ArcMap10.2, ENVI 4.2 SUHI increasing [97]
Addis Ababa Ethiopia 1985–2010 Aerial photos, Google Earth, Landsat, Ground survey data Envi 4.8, LST increasing [103]
Addis Ababa Ethiopia 1986–2016 Google Earth, Landsat, spatial population data GIS (No specified) LST increasing [104]
Addis Ababa Ethiopia 2003–2017 MODIS Global Surface UHI Explorer, GIS 10.3 SUHI increasing [98]
Akure Nigeria 2000–2018 Google Earth, Landsat ArcGIS 10.5 SUHI increasing [99]
Bobo-Dioulasso Burkina Faso 1991–2013 Google Earth, Landsat Ilwis 3.8 LST increasing [105]
Bo Town Sierra Leone 1998–2015 Google Earth, Landsat, Meteorological data GIS (No specified) Surface temperature increasing [108]
Cairo Egypt 2003–2019 Google Earth, MODIS, Municipal digital map GIS (No specified) SUHI decreasing [56]
Cape Town South Africa 2041–2060 WorldClim, GCM, Meteorological data ArcGIS 10.3 Surface temperature increasing [113]
Dar es Salaam Tanzania 2003–2017 MODIS Global Surface UHI Explorer, GIS 10.3 SUHI increasing [98]
East London South Africa 1986–2016 Landsat ArcGIS 10.2 LST increasing [107]
Freetown Sierra Leone 1998–2015 Google Earth, Landsat, Meteorological data Ilwis 3.8 LST increasing [108]
Freetown Sierra Leone 2000–2030 Landsat, Polynomial model Envi5.3, GIS (No specified) LST increasing [109]
Gaborone Botswana 2000–2018 Google Earth, Landsat, MODIS, Temperature data GIS (No specified) LST increasing [112]
Harare Zimbabwe 1984–2016 Landsat ENVI LST increasing [110]
Kampala Uganda 2003–2017 MODIS, Landsat Global Surface UHI Explorer, GIS 10.3 SUHI increasing [100]
Kampala Uganda 2003–2017 MODIS Global Surface UHI Explorer, GIS 10.3 SUHI increasing [98]
Kano Nigeria 1980–2018 Landsat, Meteorological data ArcGIS 10.3 LST increasing [102]
Khartoum Sudan 2003–2017 MODIS Global Surface UHI Explorer, GIS 10.3 SUHI increasing [98]
Nairobi Kenya 2003–2017 MODIS Global Surface UHI Explorer, GIS 10.3 SUHI increasing [98]
Tshwane South Africa 2013–2014 Landsat ENVI, ArcGIS 10.1 LST increasing [111]

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Li, X.; Stringer, L.C.; Dallimer, M. The Impacts of Urbanisation and Climate Change on the Urban Thermal Environment in Africa. Climate 2022, 10, 164.

Li X, Stringer LC, Dallimer M. The Impacts of Urbanisation and Climate Change on the Urban Thermal Environment in Africa. Climate. 2022; 10(11):164.

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Li, Xueqin, Lindsay C. Stringer, and Martin Dallimer. 2022. “The Impacts of Urbanisation and Climate Change on the Urban Thermal Environment in Africa” Climate 10, no. 11: 164.

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