What were the Test and Corporation Acts and why were they repealed in 1828?
What were the Test and Corporation Acts and why were they repealed in 1828?

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The English Civil War — Sharon Ding & Cherry Meng

1215 Magna Carta Magna Carta is a charter written by King John of England. It is one of the most important symbols on the way to democracy. Part of Magna Carta

1348 The Black Death The Black Death arrived in England in 1348. It was one of the most devastating pandemics. The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30-60%of European.

1529 Henry VIII severed ties with the Church King Henry VIII severed ties with Catholic Church and declared himself head of church in England. The fees for probate and mortuary were limited. The process for dealing with murderers and felons who looked for sanctuary were made more severe.

1603-1625 James I Rules – James I was the king of Scotland as James VI, the king of England and King of Ireland as James I. – When he was ruling, James I tried to find new sources of money without consulting parliament. – The rule of James I was important because it was the first time England and Scotland agreed to have the same monarch. James I

– James I often fought with Parliament when he was a King. – James I believed in divine Right of Kings. He didn’t allow ordinary people to question his decisions and fully intended to keep his God-given rights. This made him too much like a tyrant. – James I combined with the Church of England and he dislike the Puritans.

1625 King Charles I married King Charles I married Henrietta Maria, the daughter of Henry IV. This marriage was not popular because Henrietta Maria was a Catholic. Henrietta Maria

1625-1628 Charles I Rules without Parliament Charles I believed in Divine Right of Kings and he didn’t want to compromise with Parliament. When Parliament refused Charles I increased taxes on the people, Charles I dissolved Parliament after only 3 weeks. The personal rule of Charles I was known as the Eleven Years’ Tyranny. Charles I

Charles I brought back an ancient fee called ship money and collected customs fees known as tun age and poundage. Charles I billeted his soldiers with homeowners and sold noble titles to anyone who support him or lend him money. Charles I also use his secret Court of Star Chamber to convict, imprison, and fine his enemies.

1628 Charles I Recalls Parliament Charles I recalled Parliament when he needed more money. Charles I hoped that this time it would be more agreeable, but his hope were dashed. Parliament told Charles I they would grant no money until the king seized his illegal activities and until he signed a new charter called” Petition of rights”.

1628 Petition of Rights The Petition of Right is a major English constitutional document. It is written by Sir Edward Coke. This reminded Charles I that the law gave English people their rights, not the king. The king was not above the law. Petition of Rights

1639 Bishops’ Wars Bishops’ Wars were the conflicts, both military and political, and it occurred in 1639 and 1640. Bishops’ Wars were fought between Charles I and Scots. This constituted a long political problem among England, Scotland, and Ireland.

1640 The Short Parliament The Short Parliament was a Parliament of England that sat from 13th April to 5th May, 1640 during the region of King Charles I of England. After 11 years of attempting Personal Rule (1629-1640), Charles recall Parliament in 1640 on the advice of Lord Wentworth, recently created Earl of Strafford. John Hampden in the Short Parliament

Charles was forced to call the Short Parliament primarily to obtain money to finance his military struggle with Scotland in the Bishops’ Wars. However, the new parliament had greater interest in redressing perceived grievances occasioned by the royal administration then in voting the king funds to pursue his war against the Scottish Covenanters. King Charles I of England refused the new parliament, so he dissolved the Parliament after only three weeks’ sitting (5th May, 1640).

1640-1653 The Long Parliament ❖ The long Parliament of England, was set from 3 rd November, 1640 to 20 th April, 1653 after the fiasco of the Short Parliament followed its 12 years abeyance. The Long Parliament was established to pass financial bills. ❖ It received its name from the fact that through an Act of Parliament, it could only be dissolved with the agreement of the members, and those members did not agree to its dissolution until after the English Civil War and at the end of Interregnum in 1660.

❖ Following the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, General George Monck allowed the members barred in 1648 to retake their seats, so that they could pass the necessary legislation to allow the Restoration and dissolve the Long Parliament. ❖ This cleared the way for a new Parliament to be elected, which was known as the Convention Parliament. ❖ But many of these original members of Long Parliament, such as were barred from the final acts of the Long Parliament, claimed that the Long Parliament was never legally dissolved.

1642-1649 The Civil War ❖ The English Civil War was a series of wars within England between Parliamentarians and Royalists. ❖ The First ( 1642-46 ) and Second ( 1548-49 ) Civil Wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the Third (1649–51) Civil Wars was fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. ❖ The war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.

1642-1653 Pride’s Purge & Rump Parliament ❖ The New Model Army wanted to prevent the Treaty of Newport from reinstating King Charles I. Thomas Fairfax organized a military coup in 1648 by issuing a command to Commissary General Ireton. Ireton intended to dissolve the Long Parliament but was persuaded to purge it instead. He then ordered Colonel Thomas Pride to stop the signing of the Treaty of Newport. Pride prevented 231 known supporters of the treaty from entering the House and imprisoned 45 of them. The remaining free members then became the Rump Parliament.

❖ The Rump Parliament was the English Parliament after Colonel Pride purged the Long Parliament on 6 December, 1648. ❖ After the purge of 1648, the Rump Parliament consisted of around eighty Parliament Members. Supported by the New Model Army, the Rump declared itself “ the supreme power in this nation” on 4 January, 1649 with authority to pass Acts of Parliament without the consent of the King or the House of Lords. One of its first actions was to set up the High Court of Justice, specially convened for the trial of King Charles I.

1649 Trial of Charles I ❖ The trial began on 20 January 1649 in Westminster Hall, with a moment of high drama. ❖ When given the opportunity to speak, Charles refused to enter a plea, claiming that no court had jurisdiction over a monarch. He believed that his own authority to rule had been Divine right of kings, given to him by God and by the traditions and laws of England. Charles insisted that the trial was illegal, explaining, “No learned lawyer will affirm that an impeachment can lie against the King… one of their maxims is, that the King can do no wrong.” Charles asked “I would know by what power I am called hither. I would know by what authority, I mean lawful”. Charles maintained that the House of Commons on its own could not try anybody, and so he refused to plead. ❖ Charles I was accused of being a ‘ tyrant, traitor and murderer; and a public and implacable enemy to the Commonwealth of England’.

❖ The King was declared guilty at a public session on Saturday 27 January 1649 and sentenced to death. To show their agreement with the sentence, all of the 67 Commissioners who were present rose to their feet. During the rest of that day and on the following day, signatures were collected for his death warrant. This was eventually signed by 59 of the Commissioners, including two who had not been present when the sentence was passed.

King Charles was beheaded in front of the Banqueting House of the Palace of Whitehall on 30 January 1649. He declared that he had desired the liberty and freedom of the people as much as any; but I must tell you that their liberty and freedom consists in having government…. It is not their having a share in the government; that is nothing appertaining unto them. A subject and a sovereign are clean different things.

1653-1658 Lord Protector: Cromwell ❖ Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. ❖ He was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640–49) Parliaments. ❖ He entered the English Civil War on the side of the “Roundheads” or Parliamentarians. Nicknamed “Old Ironsides”, he was quickly promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to become one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role in the defeat of the royalist forces.

❖ Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles I’s death warrant in 1649, and, as a member of the Rump Parliament (1649–53), he dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England. He was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–50. ❖ Cromwell’s forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country – bringing to an end of the Irish Confederate Wars. ❖ Cromwell also led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651. ❖ On 20 April 1653 he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as Barebone’s Parliament, before being invited by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland from 16 December 1653. As a ruler he executed an aggressive and effective foreign policy. After his death from natural causes in 1658 he was buried in Westminster Abbey, but after the Royalists returned to power in 1660 they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.

1660- 1685 The Restoration Under Charles II ❖ The Restoration of the English monarchy began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ❖ The term Restoration is used to describe both the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, and the period of several years afterwards in which a new political settlement was established. ❖ It is very often used to cover the whole reign of Charles II (1660–1685) and often the brief reign of his younger brother James II (1685-1688).

❖ On 4 April 1660, Charles II issued the Declaration of Breda, in which he made several promises in relation to the reclamation of the crown of England. ❖ Monck organised the Convention Parliament, which met for the first time on 25 April. On 8 May it proclaimed that King Charles II had been the lawful monarch since the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649. ❖ “Constitutionally, it was as if the last nineteen years had never happened.” Charles returned from exile, leaving The Hague on 23 May and landing at Dover on 25 May. He entered London on 29 May, his birthday. To celebrate his Majesty’s Return to his Parliament”, 29 May was made a public holiday, popularly known as Oak Apple Day. ❖ He was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661.

1666 Great Fire of London Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of English City. It started on September 2nd and ended on September 5th.

1673 Test Art ❖ The Test Acts were a series of English laws that served as a religious test for public office. ❖ The principle was that none but persons professing the Established Church were eligible for public employment, and the severe penalties pronounced against recusants, whether Roman Catholic or Nonconformist. ❖ In practice nonconformists were often exempted from some of these laws through the regular passage of Acts of Indemnity.

1685-1688 James II Rules ❖ James II was born in 1633 and pass away in 1701. ❖ He was King of England, King of Ireland and King of Scotland as James VII, from 1685. ❖ He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Increasingly Britain’s political and religious leaders opposed him as too pro- French, too pro-Catholic, and too much of an absolute monarch. ❖ When he made a Catholic heir the people decided to replace him with William of Orange in 1689.

1688 The Glorious Revolution ❖ In 1688 Parliament decided to invite James protestant daughter Mary, and her husband to become Queen and King of England. ❖ When they had accepted, James ‘s supporters began to flee, and eventually James himself fled the country. This event in known as the “ Glorious Revolution”.

1689 Bill of Right ❖ The Bill of Rights is an Act of the Parliament of England passed on 16 December 1689 in the wake of the Glorious Revolution. ❖ It was a restatement in statutory form of the Declaration of Right presented by the Convention Parliament to William and Mary in March 1689, inviting them to become joint sovereigns of England. ❖ The Bill of Rights lays down limits on the powers of the monarch and sets out the rights of Parliament, including the requirement for regular parliaments, free elections, and freedom of speech in Parliament. ❖ It sets out certain rights of individuals including the prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment and re- established the liberty of Protestants to have arms for their defence within the rule of law.

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