An animal cell is a type of eukaryotic cell that makes up the tissues and organs of animals. Animal cells are highly specialized and complex structures that are essential for the proper functioning of the organism. Animal cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane, which separates the cell from its external environment and regulates the flow of molecules in and out of the cell.

On the basis of cell organization cell is divided into 2 types i.e., prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The composition of animal cells is the same but the gene expression varies and performs a different function.

Animal Cell Definition

Animal cells are eukaryotic cells that don’t have a cell wall but have nucleus in which the genetic content is stored.

Animal cells can be as little as a few microns or as large as a few millimeters. The ostrich egg, which can measure more than 5.1 inches across and weighs over 1.4 kilos, is the largest known animal cell. Animal cells can also vary in shape; some are flat, while others are oval or rod-shaped.

Animal Cell Diagram

The mentioned diagram shows the various organelle present in a normal animal cell.

Animal Cell Structure

In general, animal cells are smaller than plant cells. Its uneven form is another distinguishing feature. This results from the lack of a cell wall. However, because both plant and animal cells descended from eukaryotic cells, they share some cellular organelles.

The following cell organelles make up a normal animal cell:

Cell Membrane

A thin, lipid- and protein-rich membrane covering the cell that is semi-permeable. Its main function is to shield the cell from its environment. It also regulates how nutrients and other little things enter and leave the cell. Cell membranes are referred to as semi-permeable or selectively permeable membranes because of this.

Nucleus

The nucleus is an organelle that houses a number of different sub-organelles, including chromatins, nucleoli, and nucleosomes. DNA and other genetic materials are also present.

Nuclear Membrane

Around the nucleus lies a double-membrane structure. The nuclear envelope is another name for it.

Centrosome

It is a tiny organelle that can be found close to the nucleus. Its dense center is surrounded by radiating tubules. Microtubules are created at the centrosomes.

Lysosomes

Lysosomes are spherical organelles with a membrane enclosing them, and inside are digestive enzymes that aid in digestion, excretion, and the process of cell renewal.

Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm is a jelly-like substance that is made up of all the cell organelles and is protected by the cell membrane. Nucleoplasm is the name given to the substance located inside the nuclear membrane of a cell.

Golgi Apparatus

Golgi Apparatus is a flat, layered, sac-like organelle that manufactures, stores, transports, and packs the particles throughout the cell, close to the nucleus.

Mitochondria

The mitochondrion is a double-membraned organelle that is spherical or rod-shaped. They are a cell’s powerhouse since they are crucial in the energy release process.

Ribosomes

Ribosomes are tiny organelles that are the locations of protein synthesis and are composed of cytoplasmic granules rich in RNA.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum cellular organelle is made up of a nucleus-derived thin, spiraling network of membranous sacs.

Vacuole

A cell’s internal organelle with a membrane that helps the cell keep its shape and store things like food, water, waste, and other things.

Nucleopore

The passage of nucleic acids and proteins through the nuclear membrane is facilitated by these microscopic perforations in the membrane.

Animal Cell Types

Animal cells come in many different varieties, each with a purpose-specific function. The most typical animal cell types are:

Skin Cells

Any of the four major cell types that make up the epidermis may be referred to as “skin cells.” These are the Langerhans cells, Merkel cells, keratinocytes, and melanocytes. The general structure and function of the skin are influenced by the specific functions played by each type of skin cell.

Muscle Cells

Since cardiac muscle cells and smooth muscle cells are both tiny cells, a muscle cell is also referred to as a myocyte.

Blood Cells

A blood cell, also known as a hematopoietic cell, is a type of cell that is mostly present in the blood and is created during hematopoiesis.

Nerve Cells

It is a particular kind of cell that relays information from the body to the brain and back to the body. A modest electrical current is used to transmit the messages. also known as a neuron.

Fat Cells

Adipose tissue is mostly made up of fat cells, which are adept at storing energy as fat.

Important Facts Related to Animal Cell

The cell is the basic structural functional unit. The cell is further divided into two parts i.e., Animal and Plant Cells.

  • An animal cell is different from a plant cell as they don’t have a cell wall but plant cells have one.
  • Animal cells don’t have chloroplast.
  • An animal Cell is a eukaryotic cell.

Also Read: Difference between Animal and Plant Cell

FAQs on Animal Cells

Q1. What is an Animal Cell?

Answer:

Animal tissues only contain a certain sort of cell known as an animal cell. It is distinguished by having cell organelles that are encapsulated inside the cell membrane but without a cell wall.

Q2. Identify the cell organelle that houses the cell’s genetic makeup.

Answer:

Nucleus- contain all the genetic information of the cell

Q3. Which cellular organelle produces the energy needed for cellular activities?

Answer:

Mitochondria-it produce ATP which is the energy currency of the cell, due to this mitochondria are also known as the Powerhouse of the cell

Q4. Identify the two-layered membrane that encases the nucleus.

Answer:

The two-layered membrane that encases the nucleus is called the nuclear envelope.

Last Updated :
27 Mar, 2023

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