HOMER HOYT(1895–1984)
Homer Hoyt (1895–1984) was a
land economist, a real estate appraiser,
and a real estate consultant. In his
long and accomplished life, he
conducted path-breaking
research on land economics,
developed an influential approach to
the analysis of neighborhoods and housing markets, refined local
area economic analysis, and was a major figure in the development
of suburban shopping centers in the decades after World War II.
His sector model of land use remains one of his most well-known
contributions to urban scholarship

Sector Model
theory of urban structure
also known as Hoyt Model
developed in 1939 by Homer Hoyt
states that a city develops in sectors, not
certain areas are more attractive for
different activities because of an
environmental factor or by mere chance.
Hoyt modified the concentric zone model
to account for major transportation
according to this model most major cities
evolved around the nexus of several
important transport facilities such as
railroads, sea ports, and trolly lines that
eminated from the city’s center.
Hoyt theorized that cities would tend to
grow in wedge-shaped patterns, or
sectors, eminating from the CBD and
centered on major transportation routes.

It is a monocentric representation of urban areas
He posited a CBD around which other land uses cluster
But important factor is not distance from CBD as in the concentric
zone model, but direction away from CBD
As growth occurs, similar activities
stay in the same area and extend outwards
The Hoyt model realized that transportation (in particular) and
access to resources caused a disruption of the Burgess model.
For example a rail line or major highway to a nearby city may
result in business development to preferentially develop parallel
to the rail line or major highway. So one side of a city may be
completely industrial with another sector may be completely

• Industry follows rivers, canals, railroads, or roads
• Lower class workers work here. Paid little, bad
working conditions.
• Produces goods or other domestic products for city
Low Class Residential
• Low income housing
• Near railroads that feed factories or
• Inhabitants tend to work in factories
• Live near industry to reduce transportation costs
• Pollution or poor environmental conditions due to
industry (traffic, noise and pollution make it cheap)
Middle Class Residential
• More desirable area because it is further from industry
and pollution
• Access to transportation lines for working people who
work in the CBD, making transport easier
• Largest residential area
High Class Residential
• Housing on outermost edge
• Furthest away from industry
• Quiet, clean, less traffic
• Corridor or spine extending from CBD to edge has best

+VE & -VE
Where it does and doesn’t apply (some weaknesses)
Applies well to Chicago
Low cost housing is near industry and transportation
proving Hoyt’s model
Theory based on 20th century and does not take into
account cars which make commerce easier
With cars, people can live anywhere and further from the
city and still travel to the CBD using their car. Not only do
high-class residents have cars, but also middle and lower
class people may have cars.

Chicago, a city in the U.S. state of Illinois, is the third most
populous city in the United States and the most populous
city in the American Midwest; with approximately
2.7 million residents. Its metropolitan area (also called
“Chicagoland”), which extends
into Indiana and Wisconsin, is the third-largest in the
United States, after those of New York City and Los
Angeles, with an estimated 9.5 million people. Chicago is
the county seat of Cook County,though a small portion of
the city limits also extends into DuPage County.

Shivajinagar is an area in the heart Pune city. This is the
most important area of the city as the district court
(Pune), Pune Municipal Corporation, College of Engineering
(Pune), Agricultural College (Pune), Shivaji preparatory
military school etc. are located in this area. The bus stand at
Shivajinagar connects the city to destinations in the state
of Maharashtra. Shivajinagar Railway Station is an important
station for the suburban railway traffic of Pune
This area also has roads like the Ambedkar road (University
road) which links Pune Railway Station area to Pune
University and Aundh via Shivajinagar and Mumbai Pune old road which links Dehu Road to Pune Railway
Station area via Shivajinagar, Khadki,Pimpri, Chinchwad, and

Decentralization (or decentralisation) is the process of
redistributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or
things away from a central location or authority.[1][2] While
decentralization, especially in the governmental sphere, is
widely studied and practiced, there is no common
definition or understanding of decentralization. The
meaning of decentralization may vary in part because of
the different ways it is
Benefits—less tax,have to leave some space for residential

Mixed land use
Mixed-use development is — in a broad sense — any
urban, suburban or village development, or even a single
building, that blends a combination of
residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or industrial
uses, where those functions are physically and functionally
integrated, and that provides pedestrian
connections.[1][2] The term (“a mixed-use development”)
may also be used more specifically to refer to a mixed-use
real estate development project — a building, complex of
buildings, or district of a town or city that is developed for
mixed-use by a private developer, (quasi-)governmental
agency, or a combination thereof

benefits include:[3]
greater housing variety and density
reduced distances between
housing, workplaces, retail businesses, and other
more compact development
stronger neighborhood character
pedestrian and bicycle-friendly environments

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