RNARNA
• Central DogmaCentral Dogma: How protein is made: How protein is made
• DNADNA RNARNA ProteinProtein
• DNA stands forDNA stands for
• Deoxyribose nucleic acidDeoxyribose nucleic acid
• RNA stands forRNA stands for
• Ribonucleic acidRibonucleic acid

RNARNA
• RNA is made upRNA is made up
of a single strandof a single strand
of nucleotides,of nucleotides,
not 2 strands likenot 2 strands like
DNA.DNA.

RNARNA
• TranscriptionTranscription – process by which genetic– process by which genetic
information is copied from DNA to RNA.information is copied from DNA to RNA.
• Base pairing rules is the same except that UracilBase pairing rules is the same except that Uracil
binds with Adeninebinds with Adenine
• DNA:DNA: A T A C C G AA T A C C G A
• mRNA:mRNA: U A U G G C UU A U G G C U

RNARNA
• Structure of RNA NucleotideStructure of RNA Nucleotide::
• 1. Ribose – sugar molecule (house)1. Ribose – sugar molecule (house)
• 2. Phosphate group (circle)2. Phosphate group (circle)
• 3. Nitrogen bases – A, G, C and Uracil3. Nitrogen bases – A, G, C and Uracil
(Thymine in DNA)(Thymine in DNA)
• A with U, G with CA with U, G with C

RNARNA
• Types of RNA and their functionsTypes of RNA and their functions
• 1.1. Messenger RNA (mRNA)Messenger RNA (mRNA) – brings genetic info.– brings genetic info.
from DNA to the ribosomes.from DNA to the ribosomes.
– This is how nucleus controls cells activityThis is how nucleus controls cells activity
– mRNA is the instruction for making proteinmRNA is the instruction for making protein

RNARNA
• 2.2. Transfer RNA (tRNA)Transfer RNA (tRNA) –– carries amino acids to thecarries amino acids to the
mRNA and Ribosome.mRNA and Ribosome.
• Anticodon on the tRNA bonds to the mRNAAnticodon on the tRNA bonds to the mRNA
• Anticodon UUU would bond with mRNA AAAAnticodon UUU would bond with mRNA AAA
• tRNA are specific to 1 amino acidtRNA are specific to 1 amino acid

RNARNA
• 3.3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
• makes up the ribosomesmakes up the ribosomes
(where proteins are made)(where proteins are made)
• This is what reads the mRNA andThis is what reads the mRNA and
where amino acids are assembledwhere amino acids are assembled
to create a protein.to create a protein.

RNARNA
• mRNA then leavesmRNA then leaves
nucleus and travels to anucleus and travels to a
ribosome in theribosome in the
cytoplasm where it iscytoplasm where it is
read to synthesize a newread to synthesize a new
protein.protein.

Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis
• Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis – production of proteins– production of proteins
• Protein Structure:Protein Structure:
• Made up of amino acids arranged in a specificMade up of amino acids arranged in a specific
sequence.sequence.
• There are only 20 different amino acidsThere are only 20 different amino acids

Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis
• Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis – production of proteins– production of proteins
• Protein Structure:Protein Structure:
• Made up of amino acids arranged in a specificMade up of amino acids arranged in a specific
sequence.sequence.
• 20 different amino acids20 different amino acids
• What type of molecule is a protein?What type of molecule is a protein?
• Protein (Polymer), amino acids (monomer)Protein (Polymer), amino acids (monomer)

RNA SynthesisRNA Synthesis
• CodonCodon – combination of 3 mRNA nucleotides.– combination of 3 mRNA nucleotides.
– Ex. AUG, GCA, CUC, or CACEx. AUG, GCA, CUC, or CAC
• Each codon codes for a specific amino acid.Each codon codes for a specific amino acid.
• mRNA: AUGUCACCAUUGmRNA: AUGUCACCAUUG

Amino Acid CodonsAmino Acid Codons
• Table 10.1, several codons code for each aminoTable 10.1, several codons code for each amino
acidacid
• Start CodonStart Codon
• Stop CodonStop Codon

tRNAtRNA
• TranslationTranslation – process of– process of
reading mRNA andreading mRNA and
assembling amino acidsassembling amino acids
in the correct order toin the correct order to
make a proteinmake a protein
• What nucleotides wouldWhat nucleotides would
an AA have if thean AA have if the
anticodon was AGU.anticodon was AGU.
• Compliment would beCompliment would be
UCA.UCA.

Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis
• The ribosome will keep adding new AA until theThe ribosome will keep adding new AA until the
_______ codes for a stop codon._______ codes for a stop codon.
• What would be anti-codon for a stop codon.What would be anti-codon for a stop codon.

Different ProteinsDifferent Proteins
• If all proteins are made from the same AA, then how are thereIf all proteins are made from the same AA, then how are there
many different types of proteins?many different types of proteins?
• The order of AA and how its folded determines what type ofThe order of AA and how its folded determines what type of
protein is made.protein is made.
• What determines the order in which AA are placed in a peptideWhat determines the order in which AA are placed in a peptide
chain?chain?
• The mRNA determines the order of AA, and since the mRNA isThe mRNA determines the order of AA, and since the mRNA is
synthesized from DNA, the DNA determines what protein issynthesized from DNA, the DNA determines what protein is
needed.needed.
• All animals make Hemoglobin, but they make it differently. If 2All animals make Hemoglobin, but they make it differently. If 2
animals made hemoglobin the same way what does that tell youanimals made hemoglobin the same way what does that tell you
about those 2 animals?about those 2 animals?
• They are closely related.They are closely related.

What make proteins differentWhat make proteins different
• 1. Sequence of amino acids1. Sequence of amino acids
• 2. How the protein is folded2. How the protein is folded
• – every protein is folded differently to fit its- every protein is folded differently to fit its
purpose.purpose.

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