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CITIES

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What are urban areas? They are nucleated with one or more core areas People work in nonagricultural jobs Cities and towns are units that contain residential and nonresidential functions Metropolitan areas: large scale functional entity that operates as an integrated economic whole.

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Urban Hierarchy Hamlet Village Town City Megalopolis

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Social Characteristics of Urban Areas
Developed by Louis Wirth Large Size (talking about total number of people) High Density Social Heterogeneity

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Mark Jefferson’s Primate Cities
Larger than other cities in the area Representing a national culture

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World Cities and Megacities
Corporate offices are located here Financial services and banks are located here Stock exchanges for corporations are located here Legal offices and accounting firms Transportation services converge on world cities Metropolises that have populations larger than 10 million Top 10: Tokyo Mexico City Seoul New York City Sao Paulo Mumbai Delhi Shanghai Los Angeles Osaka

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Rank-Size Rule The nth largest city will be 1/n of the largest city
Primate Cities The nth largest city will be 1/n of the largest city 2nd largest city = ½ the size of the largest 3rd largest city = 1/3 the size of the largest 4th largest city= ¼ the size of the largest The largest city is so dominant that no other cities fit the rank-size rule. They are far smaller than the largest city. Examples: Seoul, London, Paris

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Christaller’s Central Place Theory
Assumptions What is it? No topographic barriers No difference in farm productivity An evenly dispersed farm population People with similar life styles and incomes Minimum number of consumers necessary to support different products Urban settlements are centers for the distribution of economic good and services to surrounding nonurban populations

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Concentric Model of Urban Development
Oldest (1923) Postulates a series of concentric rings of decreasing land value surrounding the Central Business District (CBD)

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CBD

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Sector Model Pre World War II (1939
Incorporates linear and transport corridors Growth on periphery (“pie slices”) Continued emphasis on CBD

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Multiple Nuclei Model Post World War II (1945)
Multiple “centers of attraction” Less emphasis on a single CBD

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Ghettoization vs Gentrification
Result of Redlining Blockbusting Demolition of deteriorating inner city areas and rennovation

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What about other nations?
European Cities?

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Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about edge cities?
A. Shopping malls are often located in edge cities. B. Megastores are often located in edge cities. C. Edge cities are usually economically independent center cities D. Edge cities are defined as legally independent suburban areas E. Edge cities often provide jobs for residents within their boundaries

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Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about edge cities?
A. Shopping malls are often located in edge cities. B. Megastores are often located in edge cities. C. Edge cities are usually economically independent center cities D. Edge cities are defined as legally independent suburban areas E. Edge cities often provide jobs for residents within their boundaries

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“The central city often consists of three CBDs: the remains of the colonial CBD, an informal open-air market zone, and a transitional business center where business is conducted in less transitory, but somewhat makeshift buildings, stalls or storefronts.” A. Sub Saharan Africa B. Latin America C. Asia D. Europe E. North America

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“The central city often consists of three CBDs: the remains of the colonial CBD, an informal open-air market zone, and a transitional business center where business is conducted in less transitory, but somewhat makeshift buildings, stalls or storefronts.” A. Sub Saharan Africa B. Latin America C. Asia D. Europe E. North America

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All of the following were common characteristics of the earliest cities EXCEPT:
A. job specialization B. temples for monotheistic worship C. agricultural surpluses D. government buildings E. social inequality

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All of the following were common characteristics of the earliest cities EXCEPT:
A. job specialization B. temples for monotheistic worship C. agricultural surpluses D. government buildings E. social inequality

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Suburban growth in the United States in the mid- 20th century was spurred most directly by the
A. expansion of public transportation systems B. demand for smaller, more efficient houses C. growing reliability and popular pricing of automobiles D. growing difficulty for merchants in central cities to provide goods to people in the hinterlands E. deterioration of the major intercontinental railroad lines

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Suburban growth in the United States in the mid- 20th century was spurred most directly by the
A. expansion of public transportation systems B. demand for smaller, more efficient houses C. growing reliability and popular pricing of automobiles D. growing difficulty for merchants in central cities to provide goods to people in the hinterlands E. deterioration of the major intercontinental railroad lines

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World Cities of the 1st Tier are:
A. Chicago, New York, and Tokyo B. Tokyo, Mexico City, and London C. Singapore, Tokyo and London D. Hong Kong, Mexico City, and New York E. New York, London, and Tokyo

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World Cities of the 1st Tier are:
A. Chicago, New York, and Tokyo B. Tokyo, Mexico City, and London C. Singapore, Tokyo and London D. Hong Kong, Mexico City, and New York E. New York, London, and Tokyo

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According to Burgess’ concentric zone model, the “zone in transition” is a transition zone between
A. poor and middle-class neighborhoods B. middle-class and wealthy neighborhoods C. urban and suburban areas D. suburban and rural areas E. businesses in the CBD and more purely residential areas in the outer zones

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According to Burgess’ concentric zone model, the “zone in transition” is a transition zone between
A. poor and middle-class neighborhoods B. middle-class and wealthy neighborhoods C. urban and suburban areas D. suburban and rural areas E. businesses in the CBD and more purely residential areas in the outer zones

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When a deteriorating inner-city neighborhood is gentrified, a common consequence is that
A. middle-class people begin moving in B. longtime residents are better able to afford their homes C. city governments force longtime residents to leave the neighborhood D. city governments usually raise property taxes substantially E. older houses are torn down and replaced with new ones

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When a deteriorating inner-city neighborhood is gentrified, a common consequence is that
A. middle-class people begin moving in B. longtime residents are better able to afford their homes C. city governments force longtime residents to leave the neighborhood D. city governments usually raise property taxes substantially E. older houses are torn down and replaced with new ones

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According to Christallers’ central place theory, the landscape is divided into
A. cities and towns that compete with one another for markets B. unevenly spaced market centers that serve the market area unevenly C. independent market areas that have little impact on adjacent markets D. complementary, but overlapping market areas E. complementary regions where each urban center has a sales monopoly

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According to Christallers’ central place theory, the landscape is divided into
A. cities and towns that compete with one another for markets B. unevenly spaced market centers that serve the market area unevenly C. independent market areas that have little impact on adjacent markets D. complementary, but overlapping market areas E. complementary regions where each urban center has a sales monopoly

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