What is the difference between catabolic and anabolic chemical reactions?

Anabolic chemical reactions build molecules and catabolic chemical reactions break molecules apart into smaller molecules

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What is the difference between dehyration synthesis and hydrolysis?

Dehydration synthesis creates chemical bonds while hydrolysis breaks chemical bonds.

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In terms of organic molecules, like sugar,what is the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs?

Autotrophs can make their own organic molecules, such as sugar, while heterotrophs must consume them.

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Cyanobacteria and Bacteria without chlorophyll. Who is the autotroph and who is the heterotroph

Cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll and are thus autotrophic. If bacteria do not contain chlorophll they are heterotrophic.

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Fungus and Dogs. Which one is the autotroph?

Both these organisms are heterotrophic, they must consume organic molecules because they cannot make them.

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The cell wall. What does it do? What chemicals is it made of?

The cell wall gives plants support and structure. It is made of cellulose, proteins, and simple sugars.

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Plant cell membrane. What does it do? What chemicals is it made of?

The cell membrane regulates what can enter and leave a plant cell. It is made of fats called phospholipids along with proteins and cholesterol.

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Do plant cells have a nucleus? If so what does the nucleus do and what chemicals is it made of?

Plants are eukaryotic and thus have a nucleus. This large organelle contains DNA and the nucleolus. It is made of fats and proteins.

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Do plant cells have cytoplasm? What are the chemicals it is made of? What does it do?

Plants cells have cytoplasm to hydrate, nourish, and support the organelles. It is made of water, ions, minerals, and dissolved organic molecules.

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Do plant cells have a cytoskeleton? What does it do? What chemicals is it made of?

Plant cells have a cytoskeleton. It provides structure, support, and transportation system for organelles. It is made of proteins called actin and myosin.

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Do plant cells have ribosomes? What do they do? What are the chemicals they are made of?

Plant cells have ribosomes. Their job is to assemble individual amino acids into proteins. They are made of protein and RNA.

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In this picture, a ribosome is taking individual amino acids and assembling them into a protein the can be used to maintain the cytoskeleton. Is this catabolic or anabolic? Does it require hydrolysis or dehydration synthesis?

The building of a protein is an anabolic chemical reaction. It will require dehydration synthesis to create new chemical bonds.

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Potato plants growing out of tubers. Describe the chemistry needed to turn starch (in the tuber) into cellulose for the new cell walls this plant will need

The large starch molecules will need to be broken down into individual glucose molecules by hydrolysis. Dehydration synthesis reassembles them into cellulos

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Do plant cells have a rough endoplasmic reticulum AND and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. What chemicals are they made of? What do they do?

Plants have both! The RER is where ribosomes make proteins. The SER has NO ribosomes and makes fats and hormones. BOTH are made of fats called phospholipids.

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Do plant cells have a Golgi Apparatus? What are the chemicals it is made of and what does it do?

Made of fat. The Golgi Apparatus takes proteins and fats from the ERS, modifiies them, and packages them into vessicles. From there they are exported.

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Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes. What are hydrolytic enzymes? Do plants have these enzymes contained in lysosomes?

Plant cells do NOT have lysosomes. However, they do have enzymes needed for hydrolysis (breaking down chemicals) they are simply free floating.

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