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MCAS Review Cell Biology

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Simple or Complex Cells
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Prokaryotes – The first Cells
Cells that lack a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Includes bacteria Simplest type of cell Single, circular chromosome copyright cmassengale

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Prokaryotes Nucleoid region (center) contains the DNA Surrounded by cell membrane & cell wall (peptidoglycan) Contain ribosomes (no membrane) in their cytoplasm to make proteins copyright cmassengale

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Eukaryotes Cells that HAVE a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles Includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals More complex type of cells copyright cmassengale

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Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells
Animal Cell Plant Cell copyright cmassengale

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Animal Cell Organelles
Ribosome (attached) Nucleolus Ribosome (free) Nucleus Cell Membrane Nuclear envelope Mitochondrion Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Centrioles Golgi apparatus copyright cmassengale

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Plant Cell Organelles copyright cmassengale

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Cell or Plasma Membrane
Composed of double layer of phospholipids and proteins Surrounds outside of ALL cells Controls what enters or leaves the cell Living layer Outside of cell Inside (cytoplasm) Cell membrane Proteins Protein channel Lipid bilayer Carbohydrate chains copyright cmassengale

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The Cell Membrane is Fluid
Molecules in cell membranes are constantly moving and changing copyright cmassengale

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Cell Membrane Proteins
Proteins help move large molecules or aid in cell recognition Peripheral proteins are attached on the surface (inner or outer) Integral proteins are embedded completely through the membrane copyright cmassengale

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GLYCOPROTEINS Recognize “self” Glycoproteins have carbohydrate tails to act as markers for cell recognition copyright cmassengale

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Cell Membrane in Plants
Lies immediately against the cell wall in plant cells Pushes out against the cell wall to maintain cell shape copyright cmassengale

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Cell Wall Cell wall Nonliving layer Found in plants, fungi, & bacteria Made of cellulose in plants Made of peptidoglycan in bacteria Made of chitin in Fungi copyright cmassengale

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Cell Wall Supports and protects cell Found outside of the cell membrane copyright cmassengale

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Cytoplasm of a Cell cytoplasm Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane Provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place Found in ALL Cells copyright cmassengale

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The Control Organelle – Nucleus
Controls the normal activities of the cell Contains the DNA in chromosomes Bounded by a nuclear envelope (membrane) with pores Usually the largest organelle copyright cmassengale

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Nuclear Envelope Double membrane surrounding nucleus Also called nuclear membrane Contains nuclear pores for materials to enter & leave nucleus Connected to the rough ER Nuclear pores copyright cmassengale

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Cytoskeleton Helps cell maintain cell shape Also help move organelles around Made of proteins Microfilaments are threadlike & made of ACTIN Microtubules are tubelike & made of TUBULIN copyright cmassengale

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Cytoskeleton MICROTUBULES MICROFILAMENTS copyright cmassengale

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Centrioles Found only in animal cells Paired structures near nucleus Made of bundle of microtubules Appear during cell division forming mitotic spindle Help to pull chromosome pairs apart to opposite ends of the cell copyright cmassengale

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Centrioles & the Mitotic Spindle
Made of MICROTUBULES (Tubulin) copyright cmassengale

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Mitochondrion (plural = mitochondria)
“Powerhouse” of the cell Generate cellular energy (ATP) More active cells like muscle cells have MORE mitochondria Both plants & animal cells have mitochondria Site of CELLULAR RESPIRATION (burning glucose) copyright cmassengale

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MITOCHONDRIA Surrounded by a DOUBLE membrane Has its own DNA Folded inner membrane called CRISTAE (increases surface area for more chemical Reactions) Interior called MATRIX copyright cmassengale

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Interesting Fact — Mitochondria Come from cytoplasm in the EGG cell during fertilization Therefore … You inherit your mitochondria from your mother! copyright cmassengale

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What do mitochondria do?
“Power plant” of the cell Burns glucose to release energy (ATP) Stores energy as ATP copyright cmassengale

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Endoplasmic Reticulum – ER
Network of hollow membrane tubules Connects to nuclear envelope & cell membrane Functions in Synthesis of cell products & Transport Two kinds of ER —ROUGH & SMOOTH copyright cmassengale

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)
Has ribosomes on its surface Makes membrane proteins and proteins for EXPORT out of cell copyright cmassengale

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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth ER lacks ribosomes on its surface Is attached to the ends of rough ER Makes cell products that are USED INSIDE the cell copyright cmassengale

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Functions of the Smooth ER
Makes membrane lipids (steroids) Regulates calcium (muscle cells) Destroys toxic substances (Liver) copyright cmassengale

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Ribosomes Made of PROTEINS and rRNA “Protein factories” for cell Join amino acids to make proteins Process called protein synthesis copyright cmassengale

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Can be attached to Rough ER
Ribosomes Can be attached to Rough ER OR Be free (unattached) in the cytoplasm copyright cmassengale

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Golgi Bodies Stacks of flattened sacs Have a shipping side (trans face) and receiving side (cis face) Receive proteins made by ER Transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends CIS TRANS Transport vesicle copyright cmassengale

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Golgi Bodies Look like a stack of pancakes Modify, sort, & package molecules from ER for storage OR transport out of cell copyright cmassengale

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Golgi Animation Materials are transported from Rough ER to Golgi to the cell membrane by VESICLES copyright cmassengale

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Lysosomes Contain digestive enzymes Break down food, bacteria, and worn out cell parts for cells Programmed for cell death (AUTOLYSIS) Lyse (break open) & release enzymes to break down & recycle cell parts) copyright cmassengale

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Lysosome Digestion Cells take in food by phagocytosis Lysosomes digest the food & get rid of wastes copyright cmassengale

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Cilia & Flagella Made of protein tubes called microtubules Microtubules arranged (9 + 2 arrangement) Function in moving cells, in moving fluids, or in small particles across the cell surface copyright cmassengale

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Cilia & Flagella Cilia are shorter and more numerous on cells Flagella are longer and fewer (usually 1-3) on cells copyright cmassengale

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Cell Movement with Cilia & Flagella
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Cilia Moving Away Dust Particles from the Lungs Respiratory System
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Vacuoles Fluid filled sacks for storage Small or absent in animal cells Plant cells have a large Central Vacuole No vacuoles in bacterial cells copyright cmassengale

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Contractile Vacuole Found in unicellular protists like paramecia Regulate water intake by pumping out excess (homeostasis) Keeps the cell from lysing (bursting) Contractile vacuole animation copyright cmassengale

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Chloroplasts Found only in producers (organisms containing chlorophyll) Use energy from sunlight to make own food (glucose) Energy from sun stored in the Chemical Bonds of Sugars copyright cmassengale

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Chloroplasts Surrounded by DOUBLE membrane Outer membrane smooth Inner membrane modified into sacs called Thylakoids Thylakoids in stacks called Grana & interconnected Stroma – gel like material surrounding thylakoids copyright cmassengale

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Cell Size Question: Are the cells in an elephant bigger, smaller, or about the same size as those in a mouse? copyright cmassengale

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Factors Affecting Cell Size
Surface area (plasma membrane surface) is determined by multiplying length times width (L x W) Volume of a cell is determined by multiplying length times width times height (L x W x H) Therefore, Volume increases FASTER than the surface area

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Factors Affecting Cell Size
DNA Overload = Not enough DNA to direct the whole cell

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Factors Affecting Cell Size
Movement of materials into and out of the cell

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Cell Size Question: Are the cells in an elephant bigger, smaller, or about the same size as those in a mouse? About the same size, but … The elephant has MANY MORE cells than a mouse! copyright cmassengale

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Cell Transport

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Plasma Membrane Selectively permeable barrier Allows nutrients in
Waste can go out

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Passive Transport Uses NO Energy

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Types of Passive Transport (No ATP)
Diffusion: Kinetic Energy Down or with Concentration Gradient Molecules must be small or fat soluble to get across membrane Can be either direction Heat Increases Speed Examples: fats, fat soluble vitamins, O2, CO2 or small ions like chloride (Cl-)

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The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 DIFFUSION Diffusion is a PASSIVE process which means no energy is used to make the molecules move, they have a natural KINETIC ENERGY copyright cmassengale G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 Diffusion of Liquids copyright cmassengale G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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Diffusion through a Membrane
The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 Diffusion through a Membrane Cell membrane Solute moves DOWN concentration gradient (HIGH to LOW) copyright cmassengale G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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Types of Passive Transport
Osmosis The diffusion of water Polar, but can move through aquaporins made by proteins in the membrane Moves down or with concentration gradient Can be either direction Example: Only Water

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Diffusion of H2O Across A Membrane
The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 Diffusion of H2O Across A Membrane High H2O potential Low solute concentration Low H2O potential High solute concentration G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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Types of Passive Transport
Facilitated Diffusion: Large Molecules or Lipid-insoluble Down or with the concentration gradient Protein channel is needed Either direction Example: Glucose

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The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 Aquaporins Water Channels Protein pores used during OSMOSIS WATER MOLECULES copyright cmassengale G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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Cell in Isotonic Solution
The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 Cell in Isotonic Solution 10% NaCL 90% H2O ENVIRONMENT CELL NO NET MOVEMENT 10% NaCL 90% H2O What is the direction of water movement? equilibrium The cell is at _______________. copyright cmassengale G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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Cell in Hypotonic Solution
The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 Cell in Hypotonic Solution 10% NaCL 90% H2O CELL 20% NaCL 80% H2O What is the direction of water movement? copyright cmassengale G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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Cell in Hypertonic Solution
The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 Cell in Hypertonic Solution 15% NaCL 85% H2O ENVIRONMENT CELL 5% NaCL 95% H2O What is the direction of water movement? copyright cmassengale G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 Cells in Solutions copyright cmassengale G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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Cytolysis & Plasmolysis
The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 Cytolysis & Plasmolysis Cytolysis copyright cmassengale Plasmolysis G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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Osmosis in Red Blood Cells
The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 Osmosis in Red Blood Cells Isotonic Hypotonic Hypertonic G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 isotonic hypotonic hypertonic hypertonic isotonic hypotonic copyright cmassengale G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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Types of Passive Transport
Filtration: Uses pressure gradient (fluid or hydrostatic) Filtrate goes from high to low pressure through a membrane or capillary Example: water and solutes filter through kidneys

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Active Transport Requires ATP

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Active Transport (ATP)
Solute Pump ATP energizes protein carriers embedded in membrane Against the concentration or electrical gradient Large or not lipid soluble molecules Examples: Amino Acids – Large Molecule Sodium-Potassium Pump – ATP is needed to pump sodium out of cell where there is more sodium and potassium that leaks out of the cell has to be pumped back inside.

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Active Transport uses ATP for Bulk Transport
Exocytosis: Out of the cell Transport vesicle (packaged by Golgi) Migrates to membrane Fuses and then empties outside cell Examples: Secreting hormones, mucus, cellular waste

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Exocytosis- moving things out.
The Plasma Membrane Moving the “Big Stuff” 4/20/2017 Exocytosis- moving things out. Molecules are moved out of the cell by vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane. This is how many hormones are secreted and how nerve cells communicate with one another. G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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Active Transport uses ATP for Bulk Transport
Endocytosis Into the cell Engulfing extra-cellular substances Forms a sac around the substance Pulls it in and the sac buds off Fuses with a lysosome Enzymes digest the contents

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Types of Endocytosis Phagocytosis: Cellular eating. Ex: White blood cells get rid of bacteria. Protective Pinocytosis: Absorption function, droplets are surrounded and taken in. Ex: dissolved protein or fat Receptor-mediated:Taking up target molecules, proteins bind only with certain molecules. Ex: hormones, cholesterol, iron and sometimes viruses get in this way

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The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 Phagocytosis Used to engulf large particles such as food, bacteria, etc. into vesicles Called “Cell Eating” copyright cmassengale G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 Pinocytosis Most common form of endocytosis. Takes in dissolved molecules as a vesicle. copyright cmassengale G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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The Plasma Membrane 4/20/2017 Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis Some integral proteins have receptors on their surface to recognize & take in hormones, cholesterol, etc. copyright cmassengale G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010

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activities occurs in the G1 phase? growth of the cell
The diagram shows the cell cycle. Which of the following activities occurs in the G1 phase? A. growth of the cell B. replication of the DNA C. formation of the mitotic spindle D. breakdown of the nuclear membrane

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activities occurs in the G1 phase? A. growth of the cell
The diagram shows the cell cycle. Which of the following activities occurs in the G1 phase? A. growth of the cell B. C. D.

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A researcher is studying a particular disease-causing agent.
The agent has a protein coat, but it lacks a nucleus, contains no other organelles, and can reproduce only when it is inside an animal cell. The researcher should classify the agent as which of the following? A. a bacterium B. a fungus C. a protist D. a virus

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A researcher is studying a particular disease-causing agent.
The agent has a protein coat, but it lacks a nucleus, contains no other organelles, and can reproduce only when it is inside an animal cell. The researcher should classify the agent as which of the following? A. B. C. D. a virus

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A lab technician needs to determine whether cells in a test tube
are prokaryotic or eukaryotic. The technician has several dyes she could use to stain the cells. Four of the dyes are described in the table below. Which dye could the technician use to determine whether the cells are prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Dye Test acridine orange stains DNA and RNA osmium tetroxide stains lipids eosin stains cell cytoplasm Nile blue stains cell nuclei A. acridine orange B. osmium tetroxide C. eosin D. Nile blue

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A lab technician needs to determine whether cells in a test tube
are prokaryotic or eukaryotic. The technician has several dyes she could use to stain the cells. Four of the dyes are described in the table below. Which dye could the technician use to determine whether the cells are prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Dye Test acridine orange stains DNA and RNA osmium tetroxide stains lipids eosin stains cell cytoplasm Nile blue stains cell nuclei A. B. C. D. Nile blue

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If a cell’s lysosomes were damaged,
which of the following would most likely occur? A. The cell would produce more proteins than it needs. B. The cell would have chloroplasts that appear yellow rather than green. C. The cell would be less able to break down molecules in its cytoplasm. D. The cell would be less able to regulate the amount of fluid in its cytoplasm.

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If a cell’s lysosomes were damaged,
which of the following would most likely occur? A. The cell would produce more proteins than it needs. B. The cell would have chloroplasts that appear yellow rather than green. C. The cell would be less able to break down molecules in its cytoplasm. D. The cell would be less able to regulate the amount of fluid in its cytoplasm.

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If an animal cell is placed in distilled water,
it will swell and burst. The bursting of the cell is a result of which biological process? A. active transport B. enzyme activity C. osmosis D. respiration

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If an animal cell is placed in distilled water,
it will swell and burst. The bursting of the cell is a result of which biological process? A. active transport B. enzyme activity C. osmosis D. respiration

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Scientists believe that the first organisms that appeared
on Earth were prokaryotic. Which of the following best represents what the cell structure of these organisms may have looked like?

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Scientists believe that the first organisms that appeared
on Earth were prokaryotic. Which of the following best represents what the cell structure of these organisms may have looked like? No Nucleus

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Identifies these two cells? A.
The illustrations below represent two different cells. Which of the following statements best Identifies these two cells? A. Cell X is a prokaryotic cell and cell Y is a eukaryotic cell. B. Cell X is an archae cell and cell Y is a eubacterial cell. C. Cell X is a red blood cell and cell Y is a muscle cell. D. Cell X is a plant cell and cell Y is an animal cell.

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Identifies these two cells? A.
The illustrations below represent two different cells. Which of the following statements best Identifies these two cells? A. Cell X is a prokaryotic cell and cell Y is a eukaryotic cell. B. Cell X is an archae cell and cell Y is a eubacterial cell. C. Cell X is a red blood cell and cell Y is a muscle cell. D. Cell X is a plant cell and cell Y is an animal cell.

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The diagram below shows a cross section of part of a cell membrane.
a. Describe the basic structure of the cell membrane. b. Describe two primary functions of the cell membrane. c. Explain how the structure of the cell membrane allows it to perform the functions described in part (b).

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A. Describe the basic structure of the cell membrane.
A.) The cell membrane is made up of 2 layers of phospholipids. The hydrophyllic heads point outward, while the hydrophobic tails point inward. This is because the cytoplasm inside the cell and the fluid outside the cell contain water. Proteins can also be found in the membrane and their function is to facilitate diffusion, to act a s a pump, or as identifying markers.

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B. Describe two primary functions of the cell membrane.
B) The primary functions of the cell membrane are, first, to maintain a boundary that keeps the organelles and cytoplasm inside and the other particles outside. Second, the membrane is selectively permeable allowing nutrients in and waste products out as well as protecting the cell.

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C. Explain how the structure of the cell membrane allows it to perform the functions described in part (B). C.) The structure of the cell membrane allows it to perform its functions. The lipid bilayer forms a strong flexible barrier between the cell and its surroundings which repels water and large molecules. The protein molecules embedded in the bilayer act as channels or pumps to allow certain molecules in or out of the cell. In addition, some of the proteins have carbohydrate chains attached that act as identification markers.

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Which of the following functions does active
transport perform in a cell? packaging proteins for export from the cell distributing enzymes throughout the cytoplasm moving substances against a concentration gradient equalizing the concentration of water inside and outside the cell

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Which of the following functions does active
transport perform in a cell? packaging proteins for export from the cell distributing enzymes throughout the cytoplasm moving substances against a concentration gradient equalizing the concentration of water inside and outside the cell

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Which of the following is a main function of the cell wall?
to store carbohydrates for later use to give the cell a rigid structure to package proteins for export to carry out photosynthesis

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Which of the following is a main function of the cell wall?
to store carbohydrates for later use to give the cell a rigid structure to package proteins for export to carry out photosynthesis

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Which of the following statements correctly matches a cell part with its function?
The cell membrane packages lipids for export The mitochondria perform photosynthesis. The lysosome digests molecules. The nucleus produces energy.

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Which of the following statements correctly matches a cell part with its function?
The cell membrane packages lipids for export The mitochondria perform photosynthesis. The lysosome digests molecules. The nucleus produces energy.

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The drawing below represents an organism that a student observed when examining a sample of pond water with a light microscope. The student identified this organism as a prokaryote. A.) Is the student’s identification accurate? Explain your answer using information from the diagram. B.) Identify three similarities between the cells of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

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A. ) Is the student’s identification accurate
A.) Is the student’s identification accurate? Explain your answer using information from the diagram. No, the student is not correct. This organism has a nucleus and membrane bound organelles, a prokaryote does not have these things.

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B.) Identify three similarities between the cells of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Three similarities between prokaryotes and eukaryotes are: 1.) Both have DNA which contains its genetic information. 2.) Both grow and reproduce and 3.) Both have a cell membrane

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Some cells, such as human nerve and muscle cells, contain many more mitochondria than do other cells, such as skin cells. Why do some cells have more mitochondria than others? A. The cells use more energy. B. The cells store more nutrients. C. The cells degrade more proteins. D. The cells divide more frequently.

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Some cells, such as human nerve and muscle cells, contain many more mitochondria than do other cells, such as skin cells. Why do some cells have more mitochondria than others? A. The cells use more energy. B. The cells store more nutrients. C. The cells degrade more proteins. D. The cells divide more frequently.

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A single prokaryotic cell can divide several times in an hour
A single prokaryotic cell can divide several times in an hour. Few eukaryotic cells can divide as quickly. Which of the following statements best explains this difference? A.Eukaryotic cells are smaller than prokaryotic cells. B.Eukaryotic cells have less DNA than prokaryotic cells. C.Eukaryotic cells have more cell walls than prokaryotic cells. D.Eukaryotic cells are more structurally complex than prokaryotic cells.

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A single prokaryotic cell can divide several times in an hour
A single prokaryotic cell can divide several times in an hour. Few eukaryotic cells can divide as quickly. Which of the following statements best explains this difference? A.Eukaryotic cells are smaller than prokaryotic cells. B.Eukaryotic cells have less DNA than prokaryotic cells. C.Eukaryotic cells have more cell walls than prokaryotic cells. D.Eukaryotic cells are more structurally complex than prokaryotic cells.

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The diagram below illustrates how plant root cells take in mineral ions from the surrounding soil.
Which of the following processes is illustrated? A. Active transport B. Diffusion C. Osmosis D. Passive filtration

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The diagram below illustrates how plant root cells take in mineral ions from the surrounding soil.
Which of the following processes is illustrated? A. Active transport B. Diffusion C. Osmosis D. Passive filtration

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Which of the diagrams below best represents the net movement of molecules in osmosis?

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Which of the diagrams below best represents the net movement of molecules in osmosis?

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A cross section of part of a Golgi complex is shown below.
A. to release energy from ATP B. to deliver proteins to other locations in the cell C. to collect amino acids for use in protein synthesis D. to send messages about cell requirements to the nucleus Part of the membrane of the Golgi complex pinches off and moves away. Which of the following is a function of this process?

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A cross section of part of a Golgi complex is shown below.
A. to release energy from ATP B. to deliver proteins to other locations in the cell C. to collect amino acids for use in protein synthesis D. to send messages about cell requirements to the nucleus Part of the membrane of the Golgi complex pinches off and moves away. Which of the following is a function of this process?

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