DNA and RNA are two types of nucleic acids that are essential for life. Both DNA and RNA are composed of nucleotides which are the basic building blocks of these molecules. DNA and RNA are two types of nucleic acids found in all living organisms. They play a crucial role in storing and transmitting genetic information from one generation to the next. DNA and RNA also have distinct differences in their chemical structure, function, and location within the cell.

Difference Between DNA and RNA

Characteristics

DNA

RNA

Abbreviation (DNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid (RNA) Ribonucleic acid
Sugar Deoxyribose sugar (2’OH) Ribose sugar
Bases Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine
Double or single-stranded Usually double-stranded Usually single-stranded
Location Mostly in the nucleus and mitochondria of the cell. Found in the nucleus, ribosome, and cytoplasm
Function Stores genetic information Acts as a template for protein synthesis
Stability More stable and less prone to change Less stable and more prone to change
Length Longer and can be up to millions of base pairs Shorter and typically several hundred to a few thousand nucleotides long
Types There is only one type of DNA RNA comes in a variety of forms, such as messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
DNA vs. RNA

DNA vs RNA

What is DNA?

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic acid) are two types of nucleic acids found in cells that are involved in storing and transferring genetic information.

DNA is a double-stranded helix-shaped molecule that contains the genetic information necessary for the development, function, and reproduction of all living organisms. It is composed of four nitrogenous bases: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), and Cytosine (C), which are arranged in a specific sequence. The sequence of these bases determines the genetic code that instructs cells to make proteins.

What is RNA?

RNA is a single-stranded molecule that plays a critical role in protein synthesis. RNA comes in a variety of forms, such as messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). mRNA carries the genetic code from DNA to the ribosome, where it is translated into a protein. tRNA helps transfer amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis, and rRNA forms the structure of the ribosome, the cellular machine that synthesizes proteins.

DNA and RNA work together to ensure the accurate transmission of genetic information from one generation of cells to the next, and to ultimately dictate the traits and characteristics of an organism.

FAQs on DNA and RNA

Q1: Where is DNA and RNA found?

Answer:

DNA is present in the nucleus and mitochondria of the cell, whereas RNA is found in the cytoplasm, ribosomes, and in the nucleus.

Q2: What is the similarity between DNA and RNA?

Answer:

Both DNA and RNA have a similar structure in which the nucleotides are joined together by covalent bonds between the sugar and phosphate groups to form a backbone while the nitrogenous bases protrude out from the backbone.

Q3: How does DNA differ from RNA in terms of function?

Answer:

DNA primarily functions as a stable storage of genetic information while RNA is involved in transferring and expressing this genetic information for protein synthesis.

Q4: What is the key Difference Between DNA and RNA?

Answer:

The primary difference between DNA and RNA is that DNA is a double-stranded molecule that stores genetic information while RNA is a single-stranded molecule that transfers genetic information from DNA to protein synthesis.

Last Updated :
14 Apr, 2023

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