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INTERNAL CITY STRUCTURE NORTH AMERICAN MODELS Concentric Zone – Burgess Sector Model – Hoyt Multiple Nuclei – Harris and Ullman

ASSUMPTIONS OF LAND USE MODELS 1.Heterogeneous society/culture 2.Competition for central land (CBD) 3.City center = center of employment 4.Base of the economy is industry 5.Private land ownership 6.Expansion from one zone to the next 7.No historical significance to influence land-use 8.No differences in terrain 9.Hierarchy of land-use

CONCENTRIC ZONE Concentric zone model – a model of North American internal city structure describing urban land uses as a series of rings around a core central business district, each ring housing a distinct type of land use. It also describes a common urban residence pattern corresponding to different family life stages. E.W. Burgess Concentric Zone = Burgess Model 1923 Based on Chicago 5 rings 1.CBD: nonresidential activities 1.Can be subdivided into other sub districts (theater, retail, government, etc.) 2.Zone in Transition (ZIT): Industry & lower-income housing 3.Working-class homes 4.Zone of middle-class homes 5.Commuter zone As areas expand, zones will overflow into subsequent zones (invasion) causing current residents to move further away (succession)

VON THÜNEN’S MODEL (1826) Town Dairy & Garden Fuel, Lumber GrainsRanching Wilderness City

SECTOR MODEL Sector model – a model of North American internal city structure in which social groups are arranged around a series of wedge-shaped sectors radiating outward from the central business district along transportation routes. This also describes a common urban residence pattern corresponding to different levels of socioeconomic status (social status). Homer Hoyt 1939 Response to the limitations of the Burgess model Impact of transportation routes City develops in sectors, not rings Industry will develop along good transportation lines New housing develops on the outer edges of a sector Creating a cone (wedge, sector, slice of a pie)

MULTIPLE NUCLEI Multiple nuclei model – a model of North American internal city structure in which social groups spread not from one central business district but from several nodes of growth, each of specialized use. Harris and Ullman 1945 CBD losing its dominance Multiple centers (polycentric) emerge around various activities Ports Universities Airports Parks Suburban businesses These centers might attract other activities Universities might attract activities that are beneficial to higher education & students Bookstores, fast food, etc. Airports might attract hotels, etc. More complex than concentric zone or sector

SIMILARITIES Accessibility is important CBD is most accessible more competition higher land values Distance decay is applicable Land value & population decrease with distance Clearly defined boundaries Ignore the influence of skyscrapers (or other high- rise buildings) on urban land use Separated residential areas Due to socioeconomic status (SES)

CRITICISMS Ignores the importance of high-rises There are not clearly defined boundaries between zones Don’t display the impact of terrain (physical) or government policy Urban re-development Don’t account for gentrification A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income, renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class, owner-occupied area. Don’t apply outside of North America

FUSED MODEL Combines elements of all three models Characteristics: Central core (CBD) Several smaller business districts Concentric zones develop around business districts Sectors emerge along transportation routes Star-shaped city with radial zones expanding out from business districts Includes factors such as SES Terrain, culture, social influences, governmental policies and other various impacts

URBAN REALMS MODEL Urban realm – a spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the central business district. James E. Vance 1964 Attempt to improve the multiple nuclei model Based on San Francisco, CA City is made up of small “realms” which are self-sufficient 5 Criteria (the five factors that influence realms) 1.Terrain 2.Size of overall metropolis 3.Strength of economic activity within a realm 4.Internal accessibility 5.Inter-accessibility Most geographers believe this is more accurate than traditional models Development of edge cities A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.


LATIN AMERICA Latin American city model – a model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene. The model combines wedge-shaped sectors and concentric rings emanating from a central business district. The wealthy live along a well-served commercial spine and the poorest residents live in peripheral squatter settlements; also known as the Griffin-Ford Model. A.K.A. Griffin-Ford Model 1980 Combines traditional Latin American culture with forces of globalization CBD Traditional market sector Modern high-rise sector Commercial Spine Extends from CBD, surrounded by elite residential housing End of “Spine” is “mall” a small edge city Housing Elite residential surrounds commercial areas Higher income housing closer to CBD Squatter settlements develop in outer rings SES decreases as distance increases from city center

EUROPE Cities are much older Streets Narrow (pre-automobile) Arranged like the root system of trees Residential SES decreases as distance increases Skyscrapers located farther from city center Greenbelts A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area. Used to prevent urban sprawl

SE ASIA McGee model – Developed by geographer T.G. McGee, a model showing similar land-use patterns among the medium-sized cities of Southeast Asia. T.G. McGee 1967 Port Central part of the city No CBD Broken into areas surround port (government zone, etc.) “Alien Commercial Zone” Dominated by the Chinese Often has smaller zones within other larger zones

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Less urbanized, but fastest growing urban areas Colonialism played a big role in the development of cities Kinshasa (DRC) Nairobi (Kenya) CBD 3 CBDs Colonial (former) Market zone Traditional CBD Residential Often along ethnic lines

ISLAMIC CITY Climate Light-colored surface Buildings designed to catch rainwater Twisting streets to maximize shade Religion Mosque at the center of the city, main focal point Promote privacy Smaller windows Cul-de-sacs/dead-end streets limit foot traffic in residential areas Other characteristics Open-air markets

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