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Industry – History & Regions
AP Human Geography Industry – History & Regions

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KI #1 Where is Industry Distributed?
Origin of industry Industrial Revolution – innovative engineers and mechanics, invention of hundreds of mechanical devices, expansion in productivity which resulted in higher standards of living Started in UK late 18th century (late 1700’s) and diffused from there Impact of the Industrial Revolution especially great on iron, coal, transportation, textiles, chemicals, and food processing

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Industry much more clustered in space than agriculture.
Important factors What are the characteristics of the land, labor, and capital Location – Where are markets located and where are resources located Industry starting to shift from MDC’s to LDC’s – Global markets

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Diffusion of the Industrial Revolution
Figure 11-2

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Less than 1 percent of Earth’s land is devoted to industry
Approximately ¾ of world’s industrial production is concentrated in 4 regions. Europe Northwestern Europe and Eastern Europe Emerged in late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries North America Industry arrived later but spread faster than in Europe Northeast U.S. and Southeast Canada East Asia China and Japan

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Industrial Regions Figure 11-3

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Industrial Areas in Europe
Figure 11-4

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Western Europe appears as one industrial region on a world map but has 4 main industrial districts.
the UK, the Rhine-Ruhr Valley, the mid-Rhine, and northern Italy

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UK Rhine-Ruhr Valley

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Mid Rhine Northern Italy

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Industry in Europe The UK dominated world manufacturing during the 19th century, producing more than the rest of the world combined.

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Industry in Europe The UK lost its international industrial leadership in the 20th century. The Industrial Revolution diffused to Europe and North America in the 19th century, then the rest of the world in the 20th century. Political instability delayed the diffusion in Europe. Europe’s political problems delayed the development of modern transportation systems.

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France & Germany (Rhine)
Iron and steel manufacturing has concentrated in the Rhine-Ruhr Valley. The mid-Rhine region became a major industrial center when Germany was split into 2 countries. The French portion of the Mid-Rhine region contains Europe’s largest iron-ore field and is the production center for 2/3 of France’s steel.

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Southern and Eastern Europe countries joined the Industrial Revolution during the 20th century.
The Po Basin has attracted textiles and other industries because of workers willing to accept low wages and inexpensive hydroelectricity.

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Industry in Eastern Europe
Russia’s oldest industrial region is centered around Moscow. St. Petersburg was one of Russia’s early nodes of industrial innovation.

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The Ural mountain range contains more than 1,000 types of minerals.
Industrial development is hindered by a lack of nearby energy sources. Kuznetsk is Russia’s most important manufacturing district east of the Ural Mountains.

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Ukraine The Donetsk coalfield contains one of the world’s largest coal reserves.

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Silesia Outside the former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe’s leading manufacturing area in Silesia. It’s an important steel production center.

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Industrial Areas in North America
Figure 11-5

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Industry in North America
Industry arrived but it grew much faster. At the time of independence in 1776, the United States was a predominately agricultural society, dependent on the import of manufactured goods from Britain.

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Industry in North America
Manufacturing was more expensive than in Britain because labor and capital were scarce, and shipping to European markets was expensive. By 1860, the United States had become a major industrial nation, second only to the United Kingdom.

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Industry in North America
1. Textiles (1st industrial revolution) 2. Food and lumber (mid-1800s) 3. Iron and steel (late 1800s)

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Where? traditionally concentrated in the northeastern quadrant of the US & in southeastern Canada. only 5 percent of the land area of these countries contains one-third of the population two-thirds of the manufacturing output.

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The oldest industrial area in the northwestern United States is southern New England.

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The Middle Atlantic area, between New York City and Washington, is the largest U.S. market.

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A linear industrial belt developed in upper New York State along the Hudson River and Erie Canal. (Mohawk Valley)

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The area between Pittsburgh and Cleveland was the nation’s most important steel producing area in the nineteenth century.

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The western Great Lakes extend from Detroit and Toledo, Ohio, on the east to Chicago and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on the west.

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NAFTA Canada, US, Mexico- NO TARIFFS
Maquidoras : an area set up along Mexico / US border where factories and industry are set up. It has the benefits of lower wages, lower transportation costs because of closeness to US, lower environmental restrictions, and due to NAFTA no tariffs on goods

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Industry in East Asia China, Japan, South Korea have been becoming industrial leaders since WWII Most abundant resource = large populations = large labor force

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