AP HUMAN GEO Unit 1 Review [EVERYTHING You NEED to Know]
AP HUMAN GEO Unit 1 Review [EVERYTHING You NEED to Know]

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Human Geography AP Review Important Concepts and People – Part 3

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Agriculture – Von Thünen

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Farm/Village Structure Metes & Bound – Colonial English system Rectangular Survey – Township & Range Longlot – French colonial system

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Economic Geography: Alfred Weber Theory on the Location of Industries, 1909 – German economist Each manufacturing plant has to ship resources to the plant and finished goods to the market – Theoretically, there must be a point in space at which these transport costs will be minimized

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Harold Hotelling, 1929 Locational Interdependence Ice cream vendors on beach –At first at opposite sides of beach –Eventually, next to each other Can’t understand location without looking at competitors

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August Lösch, 1940 One problem with Weber ’ s model is it ignores the cost and availability of labor The Spatial Margin of Profitability model looks at total costs and total revenues at a variety of locations Result: A range of points at which profits can be maximized

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Walt Whitman Rostow 1) Traditional Society Limited Technology; Static Society 2) Preconditions for Takeoff Extractive Export Industries 3) Takeoff Development of Manufacturing 4) Drive to Maturity Wider industrial/commercial base 5) High Mass Consumption Shift to service sector, domestic consumption Modernization Model : Stairway to Development Critiques: Does not account for “roadblocks” and colonial legacies

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Piore & Sabel, 1984 Piore & Sabel The Second Industrial Divide Post-Fordism – Flexible Specialization – Just-in-Time Production – Vertical Disintegration Harrison & Bluestone Deindustrializaion Companies address problems by reducing workforce and closing factories Industrial Midwest is targeted – High union activity – Resistance to change

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The Rustbelt

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The Sunbelt

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Ann Markusen: The Gunbelt

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Urban: Rank-Size Rule Ideal urban system Population of a city is inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy 1/R x Population of Largest City R = rank

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Walter Christaller (1933) Central Place Theory Assumptions – Featureless (isotropic) plain – Evenly distributed population/resources – Consumers have similar means/tastes Hierarchy of goods – Range of a good How far one is willing to travel – Threshold of a good How much population you need to support production

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Marketing Principle k=3

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Ernest Burgess, 1925 Attempt to explain social groupings within urban areas Location would be determined largely by distance from the center Concentric Zone Model

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Homer Hoyt, 1939 Some criticisms of Burgess model Actual US cities have more variation – Poor along rail lines – Commercial uses along major streets Sector Model – Wedge-shaped pattern

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Harris & Ullman, 1945 Cities can have more than one center or nucleus Suburbs are becoming parts of city Areas grouped by function

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Latin American Cities Griffin-Ford Model Disamenity Sectors Spine; Elite residences

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Harvey Molotch (1976) City as Growth Machine – City elites concerned with growth over development – Other needs are sacrificed to growth Growth good for elites, but not necessarily for everyone – Land values rise – Newcomers displace natives

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New Urbanism Walkability Mixed Use Neighborhood Structure Smart Transit Sustainability

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