AP HUMAN GEO Unit 1 Review [EVERYTHING You NEED to Know]
AP HUMAN GEO Unit 1 Review [EVERYTHING You NEED to Know]

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Human Geography AP Review Important Concepts and People – Part 3

Agriculture – Von Thünen

Farm/Village Structure Metes & Bound – Colonial English system Rectangular Survey – Township & Range Longlot – French colonial system

Economic Geography: Alfred Weber Theory on the Location of Industries, 1909 – German economist Each manufacturing plant has to ship resources to the plant and finished goods to the market – Theoretically, there must be a point in space at which these transport costs will be minimized

Harold Hotelling, 1929 Locational Interdependence Ice cream vendors on beach –At first at opposite sides of beach –Eventually, next to each other Can’t understand location without looking at competitors

August Lösch, 1940 One problem with Weber ’ s model is it ignores the cost and availability of labor The Spatial Margin of Profitability model looks at total costs and total revenues at a variety of locations Result: A range of points at which profits can be maximized

Walt Whitman Rostow 1) Traditional Society Limited Technology; Static Society 2) Preconditions for Takeoff Extractive Export Industries 3) Takeoff Development of Manufacturing 4) Drive to Maturity Wider industrial/commercial base 5) High Mass Consumption Shift to service sector, domestic consumption Modernization Model : Stairway to Development Critiques: Does not account for “roadblocks” and colonial legacies

Piore & Sabel, 1984 Piore & Sabel The Second Industrial Divide Post-Fordism – Flexible Specialization – Just-in-Time Production – Vertical Disintegration Harrison & Bluestone Deindustrializaion Companies address problems by reducing workforce and closing factories Industrial Midwest is targeted – High union activity – Resistance to change

The Rustbelt

The Sunbelt

Ann Markusen: The Gunbelt

Urban: Rank-Size Rule Ideal urban system Population of a city is inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy 1/R x Population of Largest City R = rank

Walter Christaller (1933) Central Place Theory Assumptions – Featureless (isotropic) plain – Evenly distributed population/resources – Consumers have similar means/tastes Hierarchy of goods – Range of a good How far one is willing to travel – Threshold of a good How much population you need to support production

Marketing Principle k=3

Ernest Burgess, 1925 Attempt to explain social groupings within urban areas Location would be determined largely by distance from the center Concentric Zone Model

Homer Hoyt, 1939 Some criticisms of Burgess model Actual US cities have more variation – Poor along rail lines – Commercial uses along major streets Sector Model – Wedge-shaped pattern

Harris & Ullman, 1945 Cities can have more than one center or nucleus Suburbs are becoming parts of city Areas grouped by function

Latin American Cities Griffin-Ford Model Disamenity Sectors Spine; Elite residences

Harvey Molotch (1976) City as Growth Machine – City elites concerned with growth over development – Other needs are sacrificed to growth Growth good for elites, but not necessarily for everyone – Land values rise – Newcomers displace natives

New Urbanism Walkability Mixed Use Neighborhood Structure Smart Transit Sustainability

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