Table of Contents:

  • Demographic Attributes
  • Crude Birth Rate( CBR)
  • Regional variation of CBR in India
  • Crude Death Rate( CBR)
  • Total Fertility rate ( TFR)
  • Regional Variation of TFR
  • Age structure, workforce, and dependency ratio
  • Sex composition
  • Sex ratio and child sex ratio trends in India
  • Regional variation of sex ratio
  • Age Sex Pyramid
  • Literacy rate,
  • Longevity

UPSC Previous years question:

  • Discuss the factors influencing the distribution of sex ratio in India.
  • Geographical reasons for the variation in literacy from state to state in India.

Demographic attributes:

  • Demographic=Demos ( People) + graphein ( Describe).
  • Demographic means system study of the population by using different attributes.
  • Demography attributes help in forming policies about public health, policies, maintaining law and order, economic policies, taxation, revenue.

There are two types of demographic attributes:

  • Formal Demography or quantitative data such as sex ratio, literacy ratio
  • Social Demography; qualitative or socio, economic, the political aspect of data such women participation in politics, etc.

Crude Birth Rate( CBR):

Crude Birth rate means the number of live birth per 1000 population.

  • As per the 2011 census,
  • India crude birth rate= 21.8 ( Urban: 17.6, Rural : 23.3)
  • The crude birth rate is not uniformly distributed in India:
  • Bihar has 26.4 and Uttar Pradesh has 25.9.

The following are pattern as per CBR:

Average CBR States
25.7 above Bihar, UP, Rajasthan, MP.
CBR 23.6

Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Assam, Meghalaya.

CBR 17.1 Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir
Below 15.2 Punjab, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala

Crude Death rate:

Crude death rate refers to death per thousand population.

  • India population decrease during 1918-19 due to famine and various epidemic such as influenza ( “Spanish flu”), Plague, Smallpox, Cholera)
  • Influenza alone killed 5% of the Indian population around 125 lakh within 6 months during 2018-19.
  • 1957: Asian Influenza
  • 1968: Hong Kong Influenza
  • 2019: Covid -19

Total Fertility rate ( TFR):

  • The total fertility rate refers to the average women’s child.
  • 2.1 total fertility rate is considered as replace level.

There is also regional variation in the total fertility rate.

The following are some data as per 2016 data.

TFR States
Average 1.7 and below

Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Kerala.

3.3 Bihar
3.1 Uttar Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh



Age Composition or Age Structure of the Indian population:

Age structure means the number of people of different age groups.

The following are major groups:

  • Working-age population between 15-59
  • An aging population: 60 plus age group; require more expenditure on health care
  • Population below age 15 and above 60 age are considered as dependent population.

The following are the data age structure of India.

Age 2011( in %) 2026 ( in %)
0-14 age



15-50 age 63 64
60 + 8 12

Sex Composition:

Sex ratio = the number of women per 1000 men.

Sex ratio is unfavorable where gender discrimination happens in the form of:

  • Female Foeticide
  • Female Infanticides
  • Domestic violence against women

The following are data about sex ratio and child sex ratio in India.

Year Sex ratio overall Child sex ratio( 0-6 age)



1971 930 964
1981 934 962
1991 927 945
2001 933 927
2011 943 919

As in 2011 sex ratio in:

  • Kerala: 1084
  • Puducherry: 1038
  • Delhi: 866
  • Haryana: 877

Age Sex pyramid or population pyramid:

The number of women and men in different age groups is shown in the Population pyramid.

There are three types of population pyramid:

  • Expanding Population pyramid
  • Constant Population pyramid
  • Declining Population pyramid

Expanding Population pyramid:

  • It is triangular-shaped
  • Wide base
  • It is found in developing countries.

For example,

  • India, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Mexico
  • In the Indian States, Most of the Northern states except Punjab and Himachal Pradesh

Constant Population pyramid:

  • It is bell-shaped and tapered toward the top
  • It shows the birth and death rate is almost equal

For example,

  • the Australia population pyramid
  • In the Indian States, Most of the Southern states except Kerala

Declining population pyramid:

  • It has a narrow base with a tapered top
  • It shows a low birth rate as compared to the death rate
  • It is found in developed countries

For example,

  • Japan, and other developed countries.
  • Kerala state, Mizoram

Literacy rate:

Proportional of the population which is literate able to read write, understand in any language is called literacy rate.

  • The literacy rate is an indication of socio-economic development and standard of living.
  • Economic development is the cause and consequence of literacy.
  • It increases the participation in cultural and economic well being
  • Literate parent are more conscience about children well being
  • The female literacy rate is rising very fast.

The following are data:

Year Literacy overall Male Female Gap
1991 52.2 64.1 39.3 24.8
2001 65.4 75.9 54.2 21.7
2011 73 80.9 64.6 16.3

Longevity or life expectancy:

Longevity or Life expectancy of birth means the average number of expected live to live under current atmospheric and health conditions.

Year Male Female Overalls
1961 42.87 41.13 42.03
1971 48.96 47.82 48.40
1981 54.18 54.40 54.27
1991 57.97 58.77 58.35
2001 62.12 63.75 62.91
2011 66.12 68.22 67.13

Life expectancy:

  • 1951: 36.7 years
  • 2012: 67.9 years

Regional variation of life expectancy:

As per 2011-15 data:

Year Male Female Overalls
Kerala 72.2 78.20 75.2
UP 63.4 65.60 64.50

The following sates have a life expectancy of more than 70 as per 2011-15 data;

  • Kerala, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Maharastra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttrakhand, and West Bengal.

For a detailed explanation, watch the below video:

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