You should try to complete the 25 questions on this test in 35 minutes or less. Work carefully, but do not spend too much time on any one question. Answer every question.

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Questions 1 through 3 refer to the following information.

When American colonists dreamed of their ideal land, they were probably dreaming of the middle colonies: Pennsylvania, Delaware, New York, and New Jersey. In these four colonies there were long, navigable rivers and rich soils. The sun was bright, the temperature moderate, the growing season long. The typical farm in the middle colonies was 200 acres, of which, perhaps one-half was cleared and planted. The farmers grew vegetables and fruit, but their major crop was grain: wheat, barley, oats, rye, and corn. Even with the poor tools and the wasteful techniques of colonial agriculture, Pennsylvania farmers could produce a surplus. Thus the middle-colony farmers were not just self-sufficient; they were commercial farmers. Their colonies were nicknamed the “bread colonies” because of all the grain they sold each year to other English colonies and to Europe.

Questions 4 and 5 refer to the following map.

Questions 6 and 7 refer to the following information.

Patronage, also known as the “spoils system,” is the practice of giving government jobs in return for political support. Early in U.S. history, elected officials were free to appoint employees on the basis of political loyalty, friendship, or any other consideration. But in 1883, reformers succeeded in establishing the U.S. Civil Service Commission. The commission administers competitive exams and makes appointments on the basis of merit. Today, almost all federal jobs come under this civil service system.

Questions 8 and 9 refer to the following cartoon and information.

In the early 1750s, the threat of a French attack on the American colonies prompted discussions of defense. Benjamin Franklin made his view known in the above cartoon, which was published in the Pennsylvania Gazette.

Questions 10 and 11 refer to the following map and information.

From 1932 to 1936, the entire United States received less than average rainfall. Lakes and rivers dried up, plants withered, animals died. But on the High Plains, from the Dakotas to Texas, it was worse. West winds picked up the topsoil, which had taken centuries to accumulate, and blew it eastward. Winds carrying topsoil turned the New England snow red and dusted ships at sea. From 1935 to 1937, “black blizzards” boiled across the plains, covering the barren fields with dunes. Perhaps a million and a half ruined farmers packed up and headed west.

A severe drought occurs on the Great Plains about every twenty years. And the winds are ever-present. Why, then, was this one so devastating? The answer is, overtilling. Too many people planting too much on too many acres.World War I had resulted in a huge market and high prices for wheat. An agricultural boom on the High Plains followed, and newly developed farm machinery, such as tractors, plows, and threshers made it possible. Between 1920 and 1930, five million acres of natural vegetation were plowed up on the Plains. When drought struck with particular intensity, unplanted fields and scorched crops had no protection against the winds.Today, Plains farmers combat soil erosion with a variety of planting techniques, such as crop rotation, contour plowing, and planting trees for windbreaks. They irrigate, too, but water is scarce on the Great Plains. Even the Ogallala Aquifer, a giant reservoir beneath the Great Plains, is losing water.Is another Dust Bowl possible? Some experts think so. They believe that only careful soil management, and perhaps a return to dry farming (covering the soil to hold in the moisture), can prevent another Dust Bowl disaster.

A severe drought occurs on the Great Plains about every twenty years. And the winds are ever-present. Why, then, was this one so devastating? The answer is, overtilling. Too many people planting too much on too many acres.

World War I had resulted in a huge market and high prices for wheat. An agricultural boom on the High Plains followed, and newly developed farm machinery, such as tractors, plows, and threshers made it possible. Between 1920 and 1930, five million acres of natural vegetation were plowed up on the Plains. When drought struck with particular intensity, unplanted fields and scorched crops had no protection against the winds.

Today, Plains farmers combat soil erosion with a variety of planting techniques, such as crop rotation, contour plowing, and planting trees for windbreaks. They irrigate, too, but water is scarce on the Great Plains. Even the Ogallala Aquifer, a giant reservoir beneath the Great Plains, is losing water.

Is another Dust Bowl possible? Some experts think so. They believe that only careful soil management, and perhaps a return to dry farming (covering the soil to hold in the moisture), can prevent another Dust Bowl disaster.

Questions 12 through 15 refer to the following timeline.

When Ice Age hunters invented the spear-thrower, they were able to hurl weapons faster and more accurately than they could barehanded.

An archaeologist unearths an ancient cave dwelling and several artifacts: a wall painting, a figurine, and a flute.

From this information alone, what can the archaeologist assume about the time when the cave dwellers were living?

Excavated Ice Age villages in France show separate areas for cooking, butchering, and garbage disposal. Beads that were found in certain areas of camp also suggest the inhabitants had separate areas for making clothes.

Question 16 refers to the following information.

Our jury system is based on the idea that each jury member is qualified to weigh evidence and speak up for his or her interpretation of it. In actual practice, jurors do not treat each other as equals. In a study based on 49 mock jury trials, it was found that the social status of a juror was a strong factor influencing other jurors. The higher a juror’s social status, the more influence he or she had.

Questions 17 through 19 refer to the following graph.

A job seeker shows the graph to an employment counselor and asks if it indicates that there are more jobs available for computer support specialists than there are for medical assistants.

Question 20 refers to the following information.

The Sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states:In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

The Sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states:

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

Question 22 refers to the following information.

A Wage and Tax Statement, also known as the W-2 Form, is prepared for you by your employer and is sent to you after the first of the year. Your W-2 is a summary of how much money you earned for the year and the amounts that were withheld for state and federal taxes. It also reflects additional deductions or credits for specific types of job categories, heath care, tips, and family situations. You receive a W-2 Form from each employer you have had during the year. These Wage and Tax Statements are used when preparing your state and federal income tax returns.

Question 23 refers to the following graph and information.

Dates of Some Major U.S. Wars:

Questions 24 and 25 refer to the following information.

Governments get money mainly through taxes. To increase their revenues, governments may increase tax rates. Sometimes this works, but sometimes the effect is the opposite; higher taxes can actually cause revenues to fall.

A representative is defending the idea that higher taxes can result in less revenue.

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