The attack on Transubstantiation (film clip)
The attack on Transubstantiation (film clip)

24 March 1603
Elizabeth I Dies and James VI of
Scotland Accedes to the English Throne
• Elizabeth I was
succeeded by her cousin,
James VI of Scotland,
who henceforth assumed
the title of James I of
• James’s accession meant
that the three separate
kingdoms of England,
Scotland and Ireland
were now united, for the
first time under a single
• James was the first Stuart
ruler of England.

James I [1603-1625]
James I’s speech to the House of
I am surprised that my ancestors
should ever be permitted such an
institution to come into existence.
I am a stranger, and found it
here when I arrived, so that I am
obliged to put up with what I
cannot get rid of!

August 1604
James I Ends the War with Spain
• One of James I’s first acts of
foreign policy was to end the long
war with Spain
• The resulting Treaty of London
was favorable to Spain, but was
also an acknowledgement by the
Spanish that their hopes of
bringing England under Spanish
control were over.
• The end of the war eased the
English government’s precarious
financial state.
• England and Spain were at peace
for the next 50 years.

5 November 1605
Gunpowder Plot to Assassinate James I is
• In 1604, a group of English Catholics, angered by James I’s failure to relax
restrictions against them, hatched a plot to blow up the king and
Parliament by igniting gunpowder barrels concealed in a vault beneath the
• The plot was discovered before it could be carried out. The conspirators,
including Guy Fawkes, were either killed resisting arrest, or captured and
executed by being hanged, drawn and quartered.

Remember, remember the Fifth of November,
The Gunpowder Treason and Plot,
I know of no reason
Why the Gunpowder Treason
Should ever be forgot.
Guy Fawkes, Guy Fawkes, t’was his intent
To blow up King and Parli’ment.
Three-score barrels of powder below
To prove old England’s overthrow.
By God’s providence he was catch’d
With a dark lantern and burning match.
Holloa boys, holloa boys, let the bells ring.
Holloa boys, holloa boys, God save the King!

September 1607
Irish Earls Flee to the Continent Fearing Arrest
• Following their defeat in the Nine Years’
War, Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone and
Rory O’Donnell, Earl of Tyrconnell
were treated leniently by the victorious
English government of Ireland and
allowed to retain their lands and titles.
• In 1605, the new lord deputy, Arthur
Chichester, began to restrict their
authority. Fearing arrest, the two fled to
the continent with 90 family members
and followers – the ‘Flight of the
• This marked the end of the power of
Ireland’s Gaelic aristocracy.

Plantation of Ulster Sees Protestants Moving
Onto Confiscated Irish Land
• In the wake of the Nine Years’
War, James I determined to
secure Ulster for the Crown
through a systematic settlement
• Protestants from England and
Scotland were encouraged to
move to Ulster, cultivate the land
and establish towns. These
planters moved onto land
confiscated from its Gaelic
Catholic inhabitants.
• The plantation was often
organized through guilds and
corporations. The London
companies were granted the city
of Derry, thereafter known as

King James Bible Is Published
• By the end of the 16th century, there
were several different English bibles
in circulation and the church
authorities felt a definitive version
was needed.
• The Authorised Version of the
Bible (also known as the ‘King James
Bible’) was commissioned in 1604.
• It became the most famous English
translation of the scriptures and had a
profound impact on the English

14 February 1613
James I’s Daughter Elizabeth Marries
Frederick V, Elector Palatine
• The eldest daughter of James I and
Anne of Denmark, Princess Elizabeth,
was widely admired for her beauty, spirit
and charm.
• She married Frederick V, Elector of
the Rhine Palatinate at the age of 16
and traveled with him to Heidelberg.
• Six years later, Frederick was elected
King of Bohemia, but he and Elizabeth
were driven out of the country by
Catholic forces soon afterwards.
• It was through Elizabeth’s descendants
that the House of Hanover came to
inherit the English throne.

23 April 1616
William Shakespeare Dies
• William Shakespeare was an
English poet and playwright,
popular in his time but
subsequently regarded as the
greatest writer in the English
• He wrote numerous sonnets and
poems as well as more than 30
plays, including ‘A Midsummer
Night’s Dream’, ‘The Merchant of
Venice’, ‘Henry V’, ‘Richard III’,
‘Romeo and Juliet, ‘Macbeth’, ‘Hamlet’
and ‘King Lear’.

First Record of Africans in British North
American Colonies
• The first Africans who
arrived in Jamestown,
Virginia were not slaves but
indentured servants.
• However, over the course of
the 17th century their status
gradually shifted so that more
and more became slaves.
• Race-based slavery soon
became central to the
economy of the British
colonies in North America.

August 1620
Pilgrim Fathers Sail for America in the Mayflower
• A group attempting to escape religious persecution in England sailed for the New
World and landed at Plymouth Rock, in Massachusetts.
• They became known as the ‘Pilgrim Fathers’, and are often portrayed as the
founders of modern America.
• In reality, the first permanent British colony in North America was Jamestown in
Virginia, founded by Captain John Smith in 1607.
• Jamestown was established on behalf of the London Company, which hoped to
make a profit from the new colony for its shareholders.

27 March 1625
James I Dies and Charles I Accedes to
the Throne
• James I was struck down by
what contemporaries described
as ‘a tertian ague’ and died in his
bed at Theobalds, in
Hertfordshire, at the age of 57.
• He was succeeded by his only
surviving son, Charles, then 24-
years-old, who was proclaimed as
king at the gates of Theobalds a
few hours later.

14 May 1625
Barbados Comes Under British Control
• Captain John Powell landed
in Barbados in 1625 and
claimed the island as a British
Caribbean colony.
• He returned two years later
with a group of settlers and
Barbados developed into a
sugar plantation economy
using at first indentured
servants and then slaves
captured in West Africa.

October 1627
English Forces Are Defeated at La Rochelle
• Charles I sent an English army to help French Protestants at La Rochelle who
were besieged by Catholic forces.
• It was commanded by his chief minister, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham,
who attempted to capture the nearby island of Rhé at the approaches to La
• Despite his best efforts, Buckingham was eventually forced to evacuate the island
amid scenes of chaos and confusion.

23 August 1628
Charles I’s Chief Minister, George Villiers,
Duke of Buckingham, Is Assassinated
• Anxious to redeem his honor in the
wake of the defeat by the French at
the Isle of Rhé, George Villiers,
Duke of Buckingham, traveled
down to Portsmouth in order to
prepare for a new expedition to La
• While conferring with his officers,
Buckingham was stabbed by John
Felton, a discontented former
soldier. The duke was immensely
unpopular and few apart from the
king mourned his death.

10 March 1629
Charles I Dissolves Parliament and Begins 11
Years of Personal Rule
• Charles I was outraged
when, on 2 March 1629,
members of Parliament first
held the Speaker of the
House down in his chair and
then passed three
resolutions condemning the
king’s financial and religious
• Eight days later, Charles
dissolved the assembly and
embarked on a period of
government without
parliament, known as the
Personal Rule.

23 July 1637
New Scottish Prayer Book Causes a Riot
in Edinburgh
• Keen to secure a greater degree
of religious conformity across
his three kingdoms, Charles I
ordered the introduction of a
new prayer book in Scotland.
• The measure backfired badly
when, at St. Giles Church in
Edinburgh, an angry crowd
protested against the book,
shouting: The Mass is come amongst
us! – a negative reference to the
reintroduction of Catholicism.

28 February 1638
Scots Begin to Sign the National Covenant to
Prevent Religious ‘Innovations’
• Determined not to accept the
new prayer book which Charles I
was trying to impose on them,
the Scots had drawn up a
National Covenant which
bound its signatories to resist all
religious ‘innovations’.
• On 28 February 1638, leading
Scottish gentlemen began signing
the document in Grey Friars
Church, Edinburgh. Thousands
followed. The General Assembly
of the Kirk declared episcopacy
(bishops) abolished.
• Charles prepared to send troops
into Scotland to restore order.

13 April 1640
Short Parliament Opens at Westminster
• Desperate for money to fight the
Scots, Charles I was forced to
summon a new Parliament – his first
after 11 years of personal rule.
• At first, there seemed a good chance
that members of Parliament might be
prepared to set their resentments of
the king’s domestic policies aside and
agree to grant him money.
• Such hopes proved illusory, and
Charles was forced to dissolve the
parliament within a month.

28 August 1640
Scots Defeat the English at Newburn on
the River Tyne
• Having advanced deep into
England, the Scottish army
found Charles I’s forces
waiting for them on the
southern bank of the River
Tyne at Newburn.
• Charging across the river
under cover of artillery fire,
the Scots swiftly put the
English infantry to flight.
• Charles was forced to agree
to a humiliating truce.

3 November 1640
Long Parliament Opens at Westminster
• With the Scottish army firmly established in Northern England and
refusing to leave until its expenses had been paid, Charles I was again
forced to summon a Parliament.
• Instead of providing the king with financial assistance, many of the
members of Parliament – some of whom were zealous Protestants, or
Puritans – used it to voice angry complaints against his policies.

October 1641
Rebellion Breaks Out in Ireland
• Ireland’s Catholic inhabitants were
simultaneously appalled by the
prospect of a Puritan Parliament
achieving political dominance in
England, and entranced by the
possibility of seizing concessions
similar to those which had been won
by the Scots.
• Several thousand English and Scottish
Protestant settlers were killed and
many more were forced to flee.
• After Parliament attempted to impeach
his Catholic wife, Henrietta Maria,
Charles I marched into the House of
Commons and attempted to arrest five
of its leading members. Forewarned,
they slipped away and Charles was
forced to leave empty-handed.

22 August 1642
Civil War Begins as Charles I Raises His
Standard at Nottingham
• By setting up his royal standard
on the Castle Hill at
Nottingham, and by
summoning his loyal subjects
to join him against his enemies
in Parliament, Charles
effectively signalled the start of
the English Civil War.
• Inauspiciously for him: the
standard itself was blown down the
same night… by a… strong and
unruly wind.

The English Civil War (1641-1649)
a House of Lords
a N and W England
a Aristocracy
a Large landowners
a Church officials
a More rural, less
† House of Commons
† S and E England
† Puritans
† Merchants
† Townspeople
† More urban , more

1-7 October 1642
Cornishmen Rise in Support of Charles I
• Although Parliament had initially managed to gain control of almost all of southern
England, in October 1642 some 10,000 Cornishmen rose up in arms for Charles I
and chased Parliament’s few local supporters across the River Tamar.
• Thus a new front in the developing English Civil War was opened, with the
Cornishmen becoming some of the king’s toughest soldiers.

23 October 1642
Royalist and Parliamentarian Armies
Clash at Edgehill, Warwickshire
• As Charles I’s army
advanced on London its
path was blocked by
Parliament’s army under
Robert Devereux, Earl of
Essex, at Edgehill in
• The struggle that followed
was bloody but indecisive,
ending hopes that the
English Civil War might be
settled by a single battle.

15 September 1643
Royalists Sign a Cease-Fire with the Irish
• Having suffered a series of reverses and
desperate for more men, Charles I ordered
James Butler, Marquis of Ormond, to
arrange a ceasefire with the Catholic
confederates (or insurgents) in Ireland, so that
the English Protestant soldiers fighting
there could be shipped home to serve
against the Parliamentarians.
• The so-called cessation of arms outraged the
king’s English opponents.

25 September 1643
Parliamentarians Enter Into An Alliance
With The Scots
• Fearing that they would be unable to
beat the Royalist forces without
outside help, the Parliamentarians
concluded an alliance with the Scots.
• By the terms of the treaty the Scots
agreed to send a powerful army to
fight Charles I, in return for church
reform in England according to the word
of God, that is, in keeping with
Scottish Protestantism.

2 July 1644
Scottish and Parliamentarian Armies
Destroy Charles I’s Northern Army
• Charles I’s northern supporters were besieged in York by a joint force
of Parliamentarians and Scots, but were relieved by a Royalist army
under the king’s nephew, Prince Rupert.
• Triumph quickly turned to disaster for Rupert when his army was
destroyed in a pitched battle at Marston Moor on the following day.
• The north of England was effectively lost to the king.

15 February 1645
Parliament Establishes the New Model Army
• Following the humiliating defeat of
its main field army in the Battle of
Lostwithiel in Cornwall in 1644,
Parliament decided a more effective
army was required.
• It passed the Self-Denying Ordinance
that required all members of both
houses of Parliament to lay down
their commands.
• The restructured fighting force,
established by law on 15 February,
was named the New Model Army.
Sir Thomas Fairfax was appointed
its lord general and Oliver
Cromwell his second-in-command.

14 June 1645
Royalists Are Crushed by the New Model Army at
Naseby, Northamptonshire
• Confident that his veteran troops would outfight Parliament’s newly-raised
forces, Charles I launched his main field army of around 9,000 men against Sir
Thomas Fairfax’s army of around 14,000 men at Naseby in
• The result was a disaster for the king. The superb Royalist infantry were lost,
and with them, all chance of winning the war.

5 May 1646
Charles I Surrenders to the Scots
• As the Parliamentarian net closed around
him, Charles I decided to throw in his lot
with the Scots.
• He made his way to the camp of the
Scottish army at Southwell, near Newark,
and gave himself up.
• The Scots eventually handed him over to
the Parliamentarians for £400,000.
• At the end of December 1647, the bulk of
the Scottish army marched back across
the River Tweed and the king’s Scottish
guards were replaced by English
Parliamentarian ones.

17-19 August 1648
Oliver Cromwell’s Parliamentarian Troops
Defeat a Scottish-Royalist Army
• In mid-1648, England
experienced a further
eruption of violence known
as the Second Civil War.
• Rebellions in favor of the
king broke out in many
parts of England and Wales.
• A joint force of Scots and
English Royalists rode
south but were destroyed at
Preston by an army under
Oliver Cromwell. This
marked the end of the
Royalist resurgence.

6 December 1648
Pride’s Purge Turns Away Half of Parliament
• Enraged by Parliament’s opposition to their political ideals, officers of
the New Model Army decided to remove those members they
regarded as untrustworthy.
• Colonel Thomas Pride accordingly turned away some 180 members,
while over 40 more were arrested. The resulting parliament of less
than 160 members was derisively known as the Rump.

30 January 1649
Charles I is Executed at Whitehall, London
• In the wake of the Second Civil War, Oliver Cromwell and the other senior
commanders of the New Model Army decided that England could never pacified
while King Charles remained alive.
• Accordingly, the king was charged with high treason, tried, found guilty and
• Charles faced his trial and death with remarkable dignity. The execution of a king
was greeted across Europe with shock..

15 May 1649
Leveller Mutiny Crushed by New Model Army
• In an atmosphere of greater religious
tolerance and lack of censorship during the
war, radical political and religious ideas
• The New Model Army was a hothouse for
many of these ideas. It was particularly
influenced by the Levellers, a small but
vocal group who called for significant
changes in society, including an extension
of the franchise.
• The army leadership reacted badly to
challenges to their authority, and in May
1649 crushed a Leveller mutiny at Burford
in Oxfordshire.

11- 12 September 1649
Oliver Cromwell’s Troops Storm the Town of
Drogheda, Ireland
• Determined to subdue the
rebellious Irish, Parliament
ordered Oliver Cromwell
to lead a powerful force
across the Irish Sea.
• After landing at Dublin,
Cromwell quickly moved
on to storm the nearby
town of Drogheda.
• His troops slaughtered
more than 3,000 of the
defenders in the process.

1 January 1651
Charles II is Crowned King of Scotland
• Desperate to recover his
father’s throne, Charles II
struck a bargain with the
Scots whereby he agreed
to take the Covenant
himself in return for the
promise of Scottish
military assistance.
• Early in 1651, Charles was
crowned Charles II of
Scotland at Scone Castle.

3 September 1651
Oliver Cromwell Defeats Charles II at the Battle of
• Following his coronation as King of the Scots, Charles II raised a Scottish army
and invaded England.
• Many English royalists came in to support him, but in a hard-fought battle at
Worcester, Oliver Cromwell defeated the young king’s army.
• This proved to be the last major battle of the English Civil War. Charles
subsequently fled into exile in France.

16 December 1653
Oliver Cromwell Makes Himself Lord
• After the execution of Charles I, the various factions in Parliament began to squabble
amongst themselves. In frustration, Oliver Cromwell dismissed the purged Rump
Parliament and summoned a new one.
• When this Parliament proved itself ineffective, Cromwell’s self-appointment as Lord
Protector gave him powers akin to a monarch. His continuing popularity with the
army propped up his regime.

May 1655
Britain Takes Jamaica from Spain
• The Spanish had ruled Jamaica
since 1509, and introduced African
slaves to work in the sugar
• The British seized the island and
continued to develop the sugar
• During this period, many slaves
escaped into the mountains. These
people became known as Maroons
and came to control large areas of
the Jamaican interior, often
launching attacks on the sugar

3 September 1658
Oliver Cromwell Dies and is Succeeded by His Son, Richard
• When Oliver Cromwell died, he
was succeeded as Lord Protector
by his son, Richard.
• The Commonwealth of
England collapsed into financial
chaos and arguments between the
military and administration
• Parliament was once again
dissolved and Richard Cromwell
was overthrown. George
Monck, one of the army’s most
capable officers, realized that only
the restoration of the king could
end the political chaos, and
Charles II was invited to return
from exile.

1 January 1660
Samuel Pepys Starts His Diary
• Samuel Pepys was a naval
administrator and later a
Member of Parliament
whose diaries, covering the
years from 1660-1669,
provide a fascinating
insight into mid-17th
century life.
• The scope of the diary
ranges from private
remarks to detailed
observations of the events
and personalities around

29 May 1660
Charles II is Restored to the Throne
• Charles II’s official
restoration to the
English throne – he had
already been
acknowledged as king in
Scotland in 1651 –
occurred on 29 May.
• The king’s restoration was
marked by massive
celebrations, lesser
versions of which
continued to be held on
Royal Oak Day for
centuries to come.

King Charles II [r. 1660-1685]
a Had charm, poise, and
political skills. Was known as
the merry monarch.
a Restored the theaters and
reopened the pubs and
brothels closed during the
a Favored religious toleration,
though he had secret
Catholic sympathies.
a Realized that he could not
repeat the mistakes his father
had made.

King Charles II [r. 1660-1685]
a 1661 Cavalier Parliament [filled with Royalists]
Disbanded the Puritan army.
Pardoned most Puritan rebels.
Restored the authority of the Church of England.
a 1662 Clarendon Code [Act of Uniformity]
All clergy and church officials had to conform to the
Anglican Book of Common Prayer.
It forbade non-conformists to worship publicly, teach their
faith, or attend English universities.

March 1665
Great Plague of London Begins
• Towards the end of the winter
of 1664-1665, bubonic plague
broke out in the poverty-
stricken London parish of St.
• The contagion spread fast, and
over the following months
more than 100,000 people
• By the time the epidemic
ended in December 1665, a
quarter of the capital’s
inhabitants had perished.

2 September 1666
Great Fire of London Destroys Two-Thirds of
the City • The fire broke out in a
baker’s shop in Pudding Lane
in the City of London and
spread rapidly.
• Within four days, two-thirds
of the city had been
destroyed and 65,000 people
were homeless.
• Despite this, the fire did have
some positive outcomes.
Within three weeks, an
architect, Christopher Wren
presented plans for rebuilding
much of the city. Wren
rebuilt more than 50
structures, including St.
Paul’s Cathedral.

June 1667
Dutch Ships Attack the English Fleet in the Medway
• In 1667, the Dutch admiral Michiel de Ruyter led a daring raid up the River Medway.
• Having broken a chain which the English had placed across the river, he attacked the
naval dockyard at Chatham, burning and taking many ships. It was a terrible
humiliation for the English.
• The diarist Samuel Pepys wrote: ‘Never were people so dejected as they are in the City… this

Charles II’s Foreign Policy
1665 – 1667: Second Anglo-Dutch War
a To Charles II, Louis XIV and France was an ideal ally against the Dutch.
a 1670 the secret Treaty of Dover was arranged.

Royal African Company is Established to
Regulate the African Slave Trade
• Charles II granted the Royal
African Company a monopoly on
the rapidly expanding slave trade.
• Rival merchants opposed the
monopoly and in 1698 Parliament
opened the slave trade to all.
Britain would become one of the
leading transatlantic slave trading
• Ships took guns and manufactured
goods from Britain to West Africa,
where goods were exchanged for
people. Captives were taken across
the Atlantic and sold into slavery
on the plantations of the Caribbean
and North America.
• Cargoes of rum, tobacco, cotton
and sugar were then carried to
England. This was known as the
triangular trade.

29 March 1673
Test Act Excluded Catholics From
Public Office
• The Test Act required public
office holders to accept
communion in the Protestant form
and swear an oath of allegiance
recognizing the monarch as the
head of the Church of England.
• The intention of the act was to
exclude Catholics and dissenters
from public office.
• Charles II’s brother James, Duke
of York, a Catholic himself, was a
victim of the Act. He was forced to
surrender his public office as Lord
High Admiral.

4 November 1677
Mary Stuart Marries William of Orange,
Charles I’s Grandson
• Born in 1662, Mary Stuart was the
elder daughter of Charles II’s
brother, James, Duke of York, and
his first wife Anne Hyde.
• Although both her parents later
converted to Catholicism, Mary
herself was brought up as a
• Her marriage in 1677 to the Dutch
Protestant Prince William of
Orange, himself the grandson of
Charles I, strengthened William’s
claim to the English throne.

The Exclusion Bill
• The Exclusion Bill Crisis
ran from 1678 through 1681.
It sought to exclude the king’s
brother and heir
presumptive, James, Duke
of York, from the throne of
England because he was
Roman Catholic. The Tories
were opposed to this
exclusion, while the Country
Party, who were soon to
become known as the
Whigs, supported it.

September 1678
Popish Plot to Murder Charles II is ‘Revealed’
• Disgraced clergyman Titus
Oates claimed he had learned
of a Catholic and French
conspiracy to kill Charles II,
replace him with his Catholic
brother James, Duke of York,
and transform England into a
Catholic-absolutist state.
• Oates’s revelations sparked
panic and many innocent
people were arrested and
tried. The plot was a hoax.
• At the height of the furor a
second Test Act was passed
requiring members of both
houses of Parliament to make
an anti-Catholic declaration.

6 February 1685
Charles II Dies and James II Accedes to the Throne
• Having suffered a stroke,
Charles II converted to
Catholicism on his death-bed
and passed away a few hours
• He was succeeded by his
brother, James, whose
adherence to the Catholic faith
made many of his staunchly
Protestant subjects deeply
• Nevertheless, James enjoyed
considerable popularity when
he first acceded to the throne as
James II.

King James II [r. 1685-1688]
a He was a bigoted convert to
Catholicism without any of
Charles II’s shrewdness or
ability to compromise.
a He alienated even the Tories.
a He provoked the revolution
that Charles II had succeeded
in avoiding.

King James II [r. 1685-1688]
Introduced Catholics into the
High Command of both the
army and navy.
Camped a standing army a few
miles outside of London.
Surrounded himself with
Catholic advisors and attacked
Anglican control of the
Claimed the power to suspend or dispense with Acts of Parliament.
1687 Declaration of Liberty of Conscience
He extended religious toleration without Parliament’s approval or

5 July 1685
James II defeats James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, at
Sedgemoor, Somerset
• Hoping to seize the throne,
Charles II’s illegitimate son,
James Scott, Duke of
Monmouth, landed at Lyme
Regis in Dorset.
• As he marched eastwards,
hundreds flocked to join
him. Yet Monmouth’s raw
West Country recruits
proved no match for James
II’s experienced soldiers, and
when they fought at
Sedgemoor on the Somerset
Levels, the rebels were cut to
• Monmouth was captured
and executed at the Tower of

10 June 1688
Birth of James II’s Son Sparks Popular Outrage
• Following the death of his first
wife, James II married Mary of
Modena, a Catholic, in 1673.
• The birth of a son to the royal
couple in 1688 provoked popular
• James II’s opponents, furious that
their Catholic king now had a male
heir, denounced the infant as an
imposter, and claimed that the baby
had been smuggled into the queen’s
bedroom in a warming-pan.

5 November 1688
William of Orange Lands With An Army at Torbay
• William of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht, was implored by
Protestant conspirators to deliver them from the Catholic James II.
• William, who had a legitimate claim to the throne through his grandfather, Charles I,
raised an army in the Netherlands and transported it across the English Channel.
• As nobles and officers defected to William, James II lost his nerve and eventually fled
to France, leaving William free to take the crown.

13 February 1689
William and Mary are Formally Proclaimed
King and Queen
• In the wake of James II’s flight to exile, many felt that William and his wife Mary
should be termed regents, rather than monarchs in their own right, because the former
king was still alive.
• William refused to accept this, and on 6 February 1689 the House of Lords conceded
the point. The formal declaration of William and Mary as king and queen took place
a week later. This became known as the Glorious Revolution.

The Glorious Revolution: 1688
a Whig and Tory leaders offered the throne to James II’s daughter
Mary, raised a Protestant and her husband, William of Orange.
He was a vigorous enemy of Louis XIV.
He was seen as a champion of the Protestant cause.

March 1689
James II Lands in Kinsale with a French Army
• Encouraged by Louis XIV
of France, James II sailed
to Ireland hoping that,
with Ireland under his
control, he would be able
to recover England and
Scotland as well.
• Landing at the head of
20,000 French troops,
James quickly found
himself reinforced by
thousands of eager Irish
Catholics. Soon, most of
Ireland was in under his

27 July 1689
Jacobite Highlanders Defeat William III’s Troops in
the Battle of Killiecrankie
• In Scotland, as in Ireland, many
people still supported the
Catholic James II against the
Protestant William III.
• When William’s troops (mostly
Lowland Scots) advanced into
the Grampian Mountains during
the summer of 1689, John
Graham of Claverhouse,
Viscount Dundee, led his
clansmen against them at the
Battle of Killiecrankie. His
army was routed by William’s
forces at the Battle of Dunkeld
a month later.

16 December 1689
Bill of Rights is Confirmed by an Act of Parliament
• William and Mary had
accepted a Declaration of
Rights on 13 February 1689 as
an implicit condition of being
offered the throne.
• In December, it was
confirmed by an Act of
Parliament, becoming the Bill
of Rights. It is a statement of
rights of the subject as represented
by Parliament.
• It remains a basic document of
English constitutional law and
the template for other
constitutions around the

English Bill of Rights [1689]
a It settled all of the major
issues between King and
a It served as a model for
the U. S. Bill of Rights.
a It also formed a base for
the steady expansion of
civil liberties in the 18th
and early 19th
centuries in

English Bill of Rights [1689]
a Main provisions:
1. The King could not suspend the operation of laws.
2. The King could not interfere with the ordinary course of justice.
3. No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without
Parliament’s consent.
4. Freedom of speech in Parliament.
5. Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently.
6. Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from excessive fines
and cruel and unusual punishment.
7. The monarch must be a Protestant.
8. Freedom from arbitrary arrest.
9. Censorship of the press was dropped.
10. Religious toleration.

1 July 1690
William III Defeats James II at the Battle of the
Boyne, Ireland
• James II had landed in
Kinsale in 1689 and now
controlled most of Ireland.
William III sailed to Ireland
himself to face his opponent.
• They met on the River
Boyne, where William
ordered his forces to cross
and attack the joint Irish-
French army.
• The Jacobite troops were
routed and James retreated to
France soon afterwards. In
less than two years, William’s
forces had completed the re-
conquest of Ireland.

13 February 1692
Government Troops Massacre the MacIains of
• Despite James II’s defeat in
Ireland, Jacobite sympathies
remained strong in the Scottish
• William III’s Scottish supporters
resolved to terrorize the Jacobite
clans into submission. At 5 am on
13 February, Captain Robert
Glenlyon and his soldiers, who
were then enjoying the hospitality
of the MacIain clan of Glencoe,
suddenly fell upon their
unsuspecting hosts. Some 30-40
people were slaughtered in the

Bank of England is Established to Manage
Mounting Debts
• England had accrued a
considerable debt because of
William III’s expensive wars.
• Scottish merchant William
Paterson founded the Bank
of England to assist the
Crown in managing its debt.
The Bank became the national
reserve, and in 1697 its
position of prominence was
secured when Parliament
forbade the formation of any
further joint-stock banks in
• The bank has issued bank
notes since 1694. A separate
Bank of Scotland was
established in 1695.

28 December 1694
Mary Dies, Leaving William III to Rule Alone
• William III’s wife Mary
died at the age of 32
leaving no children.
• William had loved his
wife deeply, despite the
somewhat tempestuous
nature of their
relationship, and was
grief-stricken at her

80% of Those Living in the Caribbean are
African Slaves
• Initially, European colonists forced
the indigenous people of the
Caribbean to work on sugar
• However, they were decimated by
European diseases against which
they had no immunity, so
plantation owners began to buy
African slaves.
• The profits from slavery were
potentially very high for European
slave traders. In 1708 a slave could
be bought in Africa for £5, and
sold in the West Indies for £20.
• The profits for plantation owners
from cotton, tobacco and above
all sugar were even higher.
• For the enslaved people, the work
was hard, the punishments harsh
and the living standards very poor.

12 June 1701
Act of Settlement places the House of
Hanover in Line for the English Throne
• William III was childless, as
was James II’s last surviving
daughter, Anne.
• English Protestants wanted to
prevent the return of James
II and his Catholic son, also
named James.
• Parliament decreed that after
the deaths of William, Anne
and any children they might
yet have, the throne would
revert to the heirs of James I’s
daughter, Elizabeth, the wife
of the Elector Palatine.
• Sophie of Hanover, and her
heirs became next in line to
the throne.

September 1701
English, Dutch and Austrians Sign the Treaty
of the Grand Alliance
• The expansionist policies of
Louis XIV of France
threatened to overturn the
balance of power in Europe,
and his attempts to bring
about a future union of the
Spanish and French crowns
caused the English, Dutch
and Austrians to ally against
• The so-called War of the
Spanish Succession began
the following year.

8 March 1702
William III Dies and Anne Accedes to the Throne
• William III died two weeks
after being thrown from his
horse, when it tripped over a
molehill in Hyde Park, London.
• Jacobites, gloating at their old
enemy’s downfall, drank to the
little gentleman in black
velvet who had inadvertently
helped to bring about the king’s
• William was succeeded by
Anne, who was the younger
sister of his wife Mary and the
second daughter of James II
and Anne Hyde.

13 August 1704
John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, defeats
the French at Blenheim, Bavaria
• Allied forces under John
Churchill, Duke of
Marlborough, Prince Eugene of
Savoy and Prince Louis of
Baden shattered a Franco-
Bavarian army under the Duc de
Tallard at the Battle of
Blenheim on the River Danube
in Bavaria.
• It was a crucial victory in the War
of the Spanish Succession and
helped to pave the way for the
eventual defeat of the French in
northern Europe and the
frustration of Louis XIV’s
imperial ambitions.

March 1707
Act of Union of England and Scotland is
Ratified• Although the Act of
Settlement of 1701
ensured that there would
be a Protestant succession
in England, there was no
guarantee that this would
be the case in Scotland too.
• Leading Scots were thus
persuaded to agree to a
Union of the two
Kingdoms. Once the Act
of Union had finally been
ratified, England and
Scotland officially became
one country – Great

“The Union Jack”
St. George’s Flag
St. George’s Flag–England St. Andrew’s Flag-Scotland
Union Flag-Great Britain
St. Patrick’s Flag-Ireland
United Kingdom

April 1713
Treaty of Utrecht Ends a Decade of War in
• The English and their Dutch
allies came to terms with
France at the Treaty of
Utrecht, ending ten years of
• Many long-standing problems
were resolved by the treaty–
the French agreed to abandon
their support for the dynastic
claims of James II’s son,
James, to the throne of Great
Britain. France also
recognized the Hanoverian
succession in Britain, which
had been established by the
Act of Settlement in 1701.

1 August 1714
Anne dies and George I accedes to the Throne
• Anne, the last Stuart monarch,
died at Kensington Palace in
London aged 49. None of her
children survived her.
• Under the terms of the Act of
Succession of 1701 she was
succeeded by George, Elector
of Hanover, who was
proclaimed as George I. He
was the first of the Hanoverian
• In dynastic terms at least,
Britain had entered a new age.

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