29 Marzo 1673 – Il governo inglese approva il Test Act
29 Marzo 1673 – Il governo inglese approva il Test Act

Elizabeth I was
succeeded by her cousin,
James VI of Scotland,
who henceforth assumed
the title of James I of
England.
James’s accession meant
that the three separate
kingdoms of England,
Scotland and Ireland
were now united, for the
first time under a single
monarch.
James was the first Stuart
ruler of England.

James I [1603-1625]
James I’s speech to the House of
Commons:
I am surprised that my ancestors
should ever be permitted such an
institution to come into existence.
I am a stranger, and found it
here when I arrived, so that I am
obliged to put up with what I
cannot get rid of!

By the end of the 16th century, there
were several different English bibles in
circulation and the church authorities
felt a definitive version was needed.
The Authorised Version of the
Bible (also known as the ‘King James
Bible’) was commissioned in 1604.
It became the most famous English
translation of the scriptures and had a
profound impact on the English
language.

The eldest daughter of James I and Anne
of Denmark, Princess Elizabeth, was
widely admired for her beauty, spirit and
charm.
She married Frederick V, Elector of
the Rhine Palatinate at the age of 16
and traveled with him to Heidelberg.
Six years later, Frederick was elected
King of Bohemia, but he and Elizabeth
were driven out of the country by
Catholic forces soon afterwards.
It was through Elizabeth’s descendants
that the House of Hanover came to
inherit the English throne.

William Shakespeare was an
English poet and playwright,
popular in his time but
subsequently regarded as the
greatest writer in the English
language.
He wrote numerous sonnets and
poems as well as more than 30
plays, including ‘A Midsummer
Night’s Dream’, ‘The Merchant of
Venice’, ‘Henry V’, ‘Richard III’,
‘Romeo and Juliet, ‘Macbeth’, ‘Hamlet’
and ‘King Lear’.

A group attempting to escape religious persecution in England sailed for the New
World and landed at Plymouth Rock, in Massachusetts.
They became known as the ‘Pilgrim Fathers’, and are often portrayed as the
founders of modern America.
In reality, the first permanent British colony in North America was Jamestown in
Virginia, founded by Captain John Smith in 1607.
Jamestown was established on behalf of the London Company, which hoped to
make a profit from the new colony for its shareholders.

Puritans wanted:
“purify” the Church of England of Catholic practices
Simpler services
More democratic church with no powerful bishops
James rejected their demands
Chased them out of England

Inherits the throne from his
father, James I (1625)
Like his father, he ruled as an
absolute monarch
Bickered with Parliament
Imprisoned enemies without
trial
Ran the nation into further
debt

Debt from:
Super-luxurious lifestyle
War with France
Need of money called for Parliament to convene
Parliament refused to fork over any money until
Charles I signed Petition of Right

1. No funds could be borrowed or raised through taxes
& tariffs without the explicit approval of Parliament

2. No free person (Britain had slavery at this time) could
be imprisoned without a reason

Charles I signed the Petition, thereby agreeing to its
terms (and getting his $$)
Did Charles have any intention of keeping his word?

Charles immediately broke his word
To avoid a confrontation with Parliament, he dissolved
it (would stay dissolved for 12 years)
Now on his own…with no funds from Parliament

Charles I was outraged when,
on 2 March 1629, members
of Parliament first held the
Speaker of the House down
in his chair and then passed
three resolutions
condemning the king’s
financial and religious
policies.
Eight days later, Charles
dissolved the assembly and
embarked on a period of
government without
parliament, known as the
Personal Rule.

Keen to secure a greater degree
of religious conformity across his
three kingdoms, Charles I
ordered the introduction of a
new prayer book in Scotland.
The measure backfired badly
when, at St. Giles Church in
Edinburgh, an angry crowd
protested against the book,
shouting: The Mass is come amongst
us! – a negative reference to the
reintroduction of Catholicism.

Determined not to accept the new
prayer book which Charles I was
trying to impose on them, the
Scots had drawn up a National
Covenant which bound its
signatories to resist all religious
‘innovations’.
On 28 February 1638, leading
Scottish gentlemen began signing
the document in Grey Friars
Church, Edinburgh. Thousands
followed. The General Assembly
of the Kirk declared episcopacy
(bishops) abolished.
Charles prepared to send troops
into Scotland to restore order.

Desperate for money to fight the
Scots, Charles I was forced to
summon a new Parliament – his first
after 11 years of personal rule.
At first, there seemed a good chance
that members of Parliament might be
prepared to set their resentments of
the king’s domestic policies aside and
agree to grant him money.
Such hopes proved illusory, and
Charles was forced to dissolve the
parliament within a month.

Made peace with enemies (peace is cheaper than war)
Downsized government administration
Innovative tax increases
One goal in mind rule without Parliament

Much like his father, Charles was against the Puritans
Allowed the Archbishop of Canterbury (William Laud)
to freely take any measures to stifle the Puritans

Forbidden to publish or preach
Scottish Puritans were forced to use the Church of
England’s prayer books, rituals, hierarchy, etc
Rebellion occurred, thus forcing Charles to reconvene
Parliament

Parliament had 12 years to stew and were ready to show
Charles no mercy
Refused Charles any money until he addressed a very
long list of complaints
What do you think Charles did??

Charles refused their demands and dismissed them
(known as “The Short Parliament”)
Still, he was without money
Reconvened Parliament again, but this time agreed to
their demands

Illegal to raise taxes without Parliament okay
William Laud – impeached & executed
Charles’ centralized bureaucracy – abolished
Law that only Parliament could dismiss itself
Law that Parliament had to meet every 3 years

Religious radicals in Ireland rebelled
Charles wanted funds for an army to go in
Parliament did not trust Charles with an army
Proposal from radicals in Parliament – the army
should be under Parliament’s control

Charles not very happy about this
Stormed Parliament with his own army
Bold, yet foolish move
Parliament issued Militia Ordinance which officially
declared the army under Parliament’s control
The result????

Cavaliers = Supporters of
King Charles I
Wealthy nobles
Wore plumed hats
Fashionably long hair
Well trained in dueling &
warfare
Expected a quick win

Roundheads = Supporters of
Parliament
Country gentry, town- dwelling
manufacturers, & Puritan
clergy
Called Roundheads b/c of their
hair style
Underdogs
Leader – Oliver Cromwell

In the wake of the Second Civil War, Oliver Cromwell and the other senior
commanders of the New Model Army decided that England could never pacified
while King Charles remained alive.
Accordingly, the king was charged with high treason, tried, found guilty and
beheaded.
Charles faced his trial and death with remarkable dignity. The execution of a king was
greeted across Europe with shock..

After Cromwell’s death (1658) Puritans lost control of
England
New Parliament invited Charles II back as King
Charles II met with cheering crowds

After Charles I’s execution, House of Commons
abolished :
The monarchy
The House of Lords
The Church of England

Desperate to recover his
father’s throne, Charles II
struck a bargain with the
Scots whereby he agreed to
take the Covenant himself
in return for the promise
of Scottish military
assistance.
Early in 1651, Charles was
crowned Charles II of
Scotland at Scone Castle.

Following his coronation as King of the Scots, Charles II raised a Scottish army
and invaded England.
Many English royalists came in to support him, but in a hard-fought battle at
Worcester, Oliver Cromwell defeated the young king’s army.
This proved to be the last major battle of the English Civil War. Charles
subsequently fled into exile in France.

After the execution of Charles I, the various factions in Parliament began to squabble
amongst themselves. In frustration, Oliver Cromwell dismissed the purged Rump
Parliament and summoned a new one.
When this Parliament proved itself ineffective, Cromwell’s self-appointment as Lord
Protector gave him powers akin to a monarch. His continuing popularity with the
army propped up his regime.

When Oliver Cromwell died, he
was succeeded as Lord Protector
by his son, Richard.
The Commonwealth of
England collapsed into financial
chaos and arguments between the
military and administration
increased.
Parliament was once again
dissolved and Richard Cromwell
was overthrown. George Monck,
one of the army’s most capable
officers, realized that only the
restoration of the king could end
the political chaos, and Charles II
was invited to return from exile.

Charles II’s official
restoration to the English
throne – he had already
been acknowledged as
king in Scotland in 1651 –
occurred on 29 May.
The king’s restoration was
marked by massive
celebrations, lesser
versions of which
continued to be held on
Royal Oak Day for
centuries to come.

King Charles II [r. 1660-1685]
a Had charm, poise, and
political skills. Was known as
the merry monarch.
a Restored the theaters and
reopened the pubs and
brothels closed during the
Protectorate.
a Favored religious toleration,
though he had secret
Catholic sympathies.
a Realized that he could not
repeat the mistakes his father
had made.

Popular ruler
“Man-crush” on Louis XIV
(idolized him)
Tolerant of various religions
Accepted Petition of Right
(learned from his Daddy’s
mistakes!)

Towards the end of the winter
of 1664-1665, bubonic plague
broke out in the poverty-
stricken London parish of St.
Giles-in-the-Fields.
The contagion spread fast, and
over the following months
more than 100,000 people died.
By the time the epidemic
ended in December 1665, a
quarter of the capital’s
inhabitants had perished.

The fire broke out in a baker’s
shop in Pudding Lane in the
City of London and spread
rapidly.
Within four days, two-thirds
of the city had been destroyed
and 65,000 people were
homeless.
Despite this, the fire did have
some positive outcomes.
Within three weeks, an
architect, Christopher Wren
presented plans for rebuilding
much of the city. Wren rebuilt
more than 50 structures,
including St. Paul’s
Cathedral.

The Test Act required public office
holders to accept communion in the
Protestant form and swear an oath
of allegiance recognizing the
monarch as the head of the Church
of England.
The intention of the act was to
exclude Catholics and dissenters
from public office.
Charles II’s brother James, Duke of
York, a Catholic himself, was a
victim of the Act. He was forced to
surrender his public office as Lord
High Admiral.

Born in 1662, Mary Stuart was the
elder daughter of Charles II’s
brother, James, Duke of York, and
his first wife Anne Hyde.
Although both her parents later
converted to Catholicism, Mary
herself was brought up as a
Protestant.
Her marriage in 1677 to the Dutch
Protestant Prince William of
Orange, himself the grandson of
Charles I, strengthened William’s
claim to the English throne.

The Exclusion Bill Crisis
ran from 1678 through 1681.
It sought to exclude the king’s
brother and heir
presumptive, James, Duke
of York, from the throne of
England because he was
Roman Catholic. The Tories
were opposed to this
exclusion, while the Country
Party, who were soon to
become known as the
Whigs, supported it.

Disgraced clergyman Titus
Oates claimed he had learned
of a Catholic and French
conspiracy to kill Charles II,
replace him with his Catholic
brother James, Duke of York,
and transform England into a
Catholic-absolutist state.
Oates’s revelations sparked
panic and many innocent
people were arrested and tried.
The plot was a hoax.
At the height of the furor a
second Test Act was passed
requiring members of both
houses of Parliament to make
an anti-Catholic declaration.

Having suffered a stroke,
Charles II converted to
Catholicism on his death-bed
and passed away a few hours
later.
He was succeeded by his
brother, James, whose
adherence to the Catholic faith
made many of his staunchly
Protestant subjects deeply
suspicious.
Nevertheless, James enjoyed
considerable popularity when he
first acceded to the throne as
James II.

King James II [r. 1685-1688]
a He was a bigoted convert to
Catholicism without any of
Charles II’s shrewdness or
ability to compromise.
a He alienated even the Tories.
a He provoked the revolution
that Charles II had succeeded
in avoiding.

King James II [r. 1685-1688]
Introduced Catholics into the
High Command of both the
army and navy.
Camped a standing army a few
miles outside of London.
Surrounded himself with
Catholic advisors and attacked
Anglican control of the
universities.
Claimed the power to suspend or dispense with Acts of Parliament.
1687 Declaration of Liberty of Conscience
He extended religious toleration without Parliament’s approval or
support.

Hoping to seize the throne,
Charles II’s illegitimate son,
James Scott, Duke of
Monmouth, landed at Lyme
Regis in Dorset.
As he marched eastwards,
hundreds flocked to join him.
Yet Monmouth’s raw West
Country recruits proved no
match for James II’s
experienced soldiers, and
when they fought at
Sedgemoor on the Somerset
Levels, the rebels were cut to
pieces.
Monmouth was captured
and executed at the Tower of
London.

Following the death of his first wife,
James II married Mary of
Modena, a Catholic, in 1673.
The birth of a son to the royal
couple in 1688 provoked popular
outrage.
James II’s opponents, furious that
their Catholic king now had a male
heir, denounced the infant as an
imposter, and claimed that the baby
had been smuggled into the queen’s
bedroom in a warming-pan.

William of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht, was implored by
Protestant conspirators to deliver them from the Catholic James II.
William, who had a legitimate claim to the throne through his grandfather, Charles I,
raised an army in the Netherlands and transported it across the English Channel.
As nobles and officers defected to William, James II lost his nerve and eventually fled
to France, leaving William free to take the crown.

In the wake of James II’s flight to exile, many felt that William and his wife Mary
should be termed regents, rather than monarchs in their own right, because the former
king was still alive.
William refused to accept this, and on 6 February 1689 the House of Lords conceded
the point. The formal declaration of William and Mary as king and queen took place
a week later. This became known as the Glorious Revolution.

The Glorious Revolution: 1688
a Whig and Tory leaders offered the throne to James II’s daughter
Mary, raised a Protestant and her husband, William of Orange.
He was a vigorous enemy of Louis XIV.
He was seen as a champion of the Protestant cause.

Encouraged by Louis XIV
of France, James II sailed
to Ireland hoping that,
with Ireland under his
control, he would be able
to recover England and
Scotland as well.
Landing at the head of
20,000 French troops,
James quickly found
himself reinforced by
thousands of eager Irish
Catholics. Soon, most of
Ireland was in under his
control.

In Scotland, as in Ireland, many
people still supported the
Catholic James II against the
Protestant William III.
When William’s troops (mostly
Lowland Scots) advanced into
the Grampian Mountains during
the summer of 1689, John
Graham of Claverhouse,
Viscount Dundee, led his
clansmen against them at the
Battle of Killiecrankie. His
army was routed by William’s
forces at the Battle of Dunkeld
a month later.

William and Mary had
accepted a Declaration of
Rights on 13 February 1689 as
an implicit condition of being
offered the throne.
In December, it was confirmed
by an Act of Parliament,
becoming the Bill of Rights.
It is a statement of rights of the
subject as represented by
Parliament.
It remains a basic document of
English constitutional law and
the template for other
constitutions around the world.

English Bill of Rights [1689]
a It settled all of the major
issues between King and
Parliament.
a It served as a model for
the U. S. Bill of Rights.
a It also formed a base for
the steady expansion of
civil liberties in the 18th
and early 19th centuries in
Britain.

English Bill of Rights [1689]
a Main provisions:
1. The King could not suspend the operation of laws.
2. The King could not interfere with the ordinary course of justice.
3. No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without
Parliament’s consent.
4. Freedom of speech in Parliament.
5. Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently.
6. Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from excessive fines
and cruel and unusual punishment.
7. The monarch must be a Protestant.
8. Freedom from arbitrary arrest.
9. Censorship of the press was dropped.
10. Religious toleration.

James II had landed in
Kinsale in 1689 and now
controlled most of Ireland.
William III sailed to Ireland
himself to face his opponent.
They met on the River
Boyne, where William ordered
his forces to cross and attack
the joint Irish-French army.
The Jacobite troops were
routed and James retreated to
France soon afterwards. In
less than two years, William’s
forces had completed the re-
conquest of Ireland.

Despite James II’s defeat in
Ireland, Jacobite sympathies
remained strong in the Scottish
Highlands.
William III’s Scottish supporters
resolved to terrorize the Jacobite
clans into submission. At 5 am on
13 February, Captain Robert
Glenlyon and his soldiers, who
were then enjoying the hospitality
of the MacIain clan of Glencoe,
suddenly fell upon their
unsuspecting hosts. Some 30-40
people were slaughtered in the
massacre.

England had accrued a
considerable debt because of
William III’s expensive wars.
Scottish merchant William
Paterson founded the Bank
of England to assist the
Crown in managing its debt.
The Bank became the national
reserve, and in 1697 its position
of prominence was secured
when Parliament forbade the
formation of any further joint-
stock banks in England.
The bank has issued bank
notes since 1694. A separate
Bank of Scotland was
established in 1695.

William III’s wife Mary
died at the age of 32
leaving no children.
William had loved his
wife deeply, despite the
somewhat tempestuous
nature of their
relationship, and was
grief-stricken at her
death.

Initially, European colonists forced
the indigenous people of the
Caribbean to work on sugar
plantations.
However, they were decimated by
European diseases against which they
had no immunity, so plantation
owners began to buy African slaves.
The profits from slavery were
potentially very high for European
slave traders. In 1708 a slave could be
bought in Africa for £5, and sold in
the West Indies for £20.
The profits for plantation owners
from cotton, tobacco and above all
sugar were even higher.
For the enslaved people, the work was
hard, the punishments harsh and the
living standards very poor.

William III was childless, as
was James II’s last surviving
daughter, Anne.
English Protestants wanted to
prevent the return of James
II and his Catholic son, also
named James.
Parliament decreed that after
the deaths of William, Anne
and any children they might
yet have, the throne would
revert to the heirs of James I’s
daughter, Elizabeth, the wife
of the Elector Palatine.
Sophie of Hanover, and her
heirs became next in line to
the throne.

The expansionist policies of
Louis XIV of France
threatened to overturn the
balance of power in Europe,
and his attempts to bring
about a future union of the
Spanish and French crowns
caused the English, Dutch
and Austrians to ally against
him.
The so-called War of the
Spanish Succession began
the following year.

William III died two weeks
after being thrown from his
horse, when it tripped over a
molehill in Hyde Park, London.
Jacobites, gloating at their old
enemy’s downfall, drank to the
little gentleman in black
velvet who had inadvertently
helped to bring about the king’s
death.
William was succeeded by Anne,
who was the younger sister of
his wife Mary and the second
daughter of James II and Anne
Hyde.

Allied forces under John
Churchill, Duke of
Marlborough, Prince Eugene of
Savoy and Prince Louis of
Baden shattered a Franco-
Bavarian army under the Duc de
Tallard at the Battle of Blenheim
on the River Danube in Bavaria.
It was a crucial victory in the War
of the Spanish Succession and
helped to pave the way for the
eventual defeat of the French in
northern Europe and the
frustration of Louis XIV’s
imperial ambitions.

Although the Act of
Settlement of 1701
ensured that there would be
a Protestant succession in
England, there was no
guarantee that this would
be the case in Scotland too.
Leading Scots were thus
persuaded to agree to a
Union of the two
Kingdoms. Once the Act
of Union had finally been
ratified, England and
Scotland officially became
one country – Great
Britain.

“The Union Jack”
St. George’s Flag
England
St. George’s Flag–England St. Andrew’s Flag-Scotland
Union Flag-Great Britain
St. Patrick’s Flag-Ireland
United Kingdom

The English and their Dutch
allies came to terms with
France at the Treaty of
Utrecht, ending ten years of
warfare.
Many long-standing problems
were resolved by the treaty–
the French agreed to abandon
their support for the dynastic
claims of James II’s son,
James, to the throne of Great
Britain. France also recognized
the Hanoverian succession in
Britain, which had been
established by the Act of
Settlement in 1701.

Anne, the last Stuart monarch,
died at Kensington Palace in
London aged 49. None of her
children survived her.
Under the terms of the Act of
Succession of 1701 she was
succeeded by George, Elector
of Hanover, who was
proclaimed as George I. He
was the first of the Hanoverian
monarchs.
In dynastic terms at least,
Britain had entered a new age.

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