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Chapter 8: Photosynthesis

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8-1 ATP Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the directly usable form of energy for cellular processes

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8-1 ATP Energy in ATP is released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken

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8-1 ATP ADP can be “recharged” to ATP with the addition of energy and a phosphate group Energy Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery

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Energy is released from ATP when
a phosphate group is added. adenine bonds to ribose. ATP is exposed to sunlight. a phosphate group is removed.

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Photosynthesis Overview
8-2 Photosynthesis Overview Method of using light energy to convert CO2 and water into sugar (glucose) and oxygen This is how carbon and energy enters the food chain

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A student is collecting the gas given off from a plant in bright sunlight. The gas being collected is probably oxygen. carbon dioxide ATP. water vapor.

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8-2 Chloroplasts

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8-2

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Light-dependent Reactions
Occurs in thylakoids Requires light to charge electrons Energy from electrons used to produce ATP and NADPH This energy powers the second part of photosynthesis, The Calvin Cycle

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Light-dependent Reactions
8-3 Light-dependent Reactions Take place within the thylakoid membrane Hydrogen Ion Movement Photosystem II ATP synthase Inner Thylakoid Space Thylakoid Membrane Stroma Electron Transport Chain Photosystem I ATP Formation

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Light-dependent Reactions
8-3 Light-dependent Reactions

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Which of the following is NOT involved in the Light Dependent Reactions
oxygen. carbon dioxide ATP. water

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Choose the correct pathway of energy,
Light Electrons ATP Electrons Light ATP ATP Electrons Oxygen Water Oxygen ATP

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Calvin Cycle (Light-independent Reactions)
Powered by ATP and NADPH generated in light reactions Occurs in the stroma

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The Calvin Cycle (light-independent reactions)
CO2 is carbon source for glucose (sugar) And all other carbon compounds This is how carbon enters the food chain

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8-3

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What would happen if a plant was placed in a room filled with nothing but oxygen?
It would grow faster It would not be able to produce ATP It would not be able to produce glucose It would not require water

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Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration

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Using Chemical Energy Plants and animals both use glucose for metabolic fuel Glucose is not directly usable Must be converted into ATP first

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Cellular Respiration Overview
Converts glucose into ATP Occurs in both plants and animals Cellular Respiration Reaction: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O Opposite of photosynthesis – 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

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Which of the following is NOT a product of cellular respiration?
Carbon Dioxide Water ATP Oxygen

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How are cellular respiration and photosynthesis almost opposite processes?
Photosynthesis releases energy and cellular respiration stores energy. Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and cellular respiration puts it back. Photosynthesis removes oxygen from the atmosphere, and cellular respiration puts it back. All of the above

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to electron transport chain
Glycolysis Glucose two pyruvic acid (a.k.a. pyruvate) Occurs in the cytoplasm Produces 2 ATP Glucose 2 Pyruvate 2 G3P to electron transport chain

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Which substance is needed to begin the process of glycolysis?
ATP NADP Carbon Dioxide Pyruvic Acid

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Aerobic Cellular Respiration
Oxygen required = aerobic 2 more sets of reactions which occur in a specialized organelles called mitochondria 1. The Krebs Cycle 2. The Electron Transport Chain

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The Krebs Cycle A.K.A. The Citric Acid Cycle
Completes the breakdown of glucose Carbon and oxygen atoms end up in CO2 and H2O, respectively Produces only 2 more ATP but produces electron carriers NADH and FADH2 which move to the 3rd stage (E.T.C.)

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The Krebs Cycle Citric Acid Production

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The Krebs Cycle Products (per glucose): 6 CO2 2 ATP 8 NADH 2 FADH2
to E.T.C.

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The Krebs Cycle takes place within the
Chloroplast Mitochondrion Nucleus Cytoplasm

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During the Krebs Cycle Hydrogen ions and oxygen form water The cell releases a small amount of energy through fermentation Each glucose molecule is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid Pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of reactions

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Electron Transport Chain
Powered by electron carriers from the Kreb’s Cycle NADH and FADH2 Produces a total of 32 ATP Oxygen is needed to accept electrons at the end Produces water as a byproduct

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The Electron Transport Chain
Hydrogen Ion Movement Electron Transport H+ Active Transport H+ Diffusion Intermembrane Space ATP synthase Inner Membrane Mitochondrial Matrix ATP Production

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Energy Tally 36 ATP for aerobic vs. 2 ATP for anaerobic
Glycolysis ATP Krebs ATP Electron Transport Chain 32 ATP 36 ATP

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Why do animals need to breathe in oxygen?
To convert glucose into pyruvate during glycolysis To accept electrons in the electron transport chain To carry NADH and FADH2 to from the Krebs Cycle to the E.T.C. To produce water

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Which of the following processes is NOT part of aerobic cellular respiration?
The Krebs Cycle The Electron Transport Chain The Citric Acid Cycle Glycolysis

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Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
Also called fermentation Some organisms thrive in environments with little or no oxygen Marshes, bogs, digestive tracts, sewage treatment tanks, etc. No oxygen used = anaerobic Results in no more ATP The final steps in these pathways serve ONLY to regenerate NAD+ so it can keep glycolysis running End products such as ethanol and CO2 (yeast in beer/bread) or lactic acid (muscle cells)

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Fermentation Overview

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Alcoholic Fermentation
Used by yeasts and other microorganisms Produces carbon dioxide and ethanol Used to make bread and alcoholic drinks (beer, wine, etc.)

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Lactic Acid Fermentation
Used by both unicellular and multicellular organisms Lactic acid buildup in muscles causes a burning sensation Used in the production of sour cream, cheese, yogurt, and many other foods & beverages Glucose Pyruvic Acid Lactic Acid

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Fermentation Overview

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