English Speaking Countries Fig. 5-1: English is the official language in 42 countries, including some in which it is not the most widely spoken language. It’s also used & understood in many others.

Invasions of England 5 th –11 th centuries Fig. 5-2: Groups that brought what became English to England included Jutes, Angles, Saxons, and Vikings. The Normans later brought French vocabulary to English.

Old & Middle English Dialects Fig. 5-3: The main dialect regions of Old English before the Norman invasion persisted to some extent in the Middle English dialects thru the 1400’s.

Dialects in the Eastern U.S. Fig. 5-4: Hans Kurath divided the eastern U.S. into three dialect regions, whose distribution is similar to that of house types (Fig. 4-9).

Indo-European Language Family Fig. 5-5: The main branches of the Indo-European language family include Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranian.

Germanic Branch of Indo-European Germanic branch today is divided into N. & W. Germanic groups. English is in the West Germ. grp.

South Asian Languages & Language Families Fig. 5-7: Indo-European is the largest of four main language families in South Asia. The country of India has 18 official languages.

Romance Branch of Indo-European The Romance branch includes three of the world’s 12 most widely spoken languages (Spanish, French, and Portuguese), as well as a number of smaller languages and dialects.

Kurgan Theory of Indo-European Origin Fig. 5-9: In the Kurgan theory, Proto-Indo-European diffused from the Kurgan hearth N. of the Caspian Sea, about 7,000 yrs ago. (hunter/gatherers)

Anatolian Hearth Theory of Indo-European Origin Fig. 5-10: In the Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European originated in Turkey before the Kurgans and diffused through agricultural expansion.

Language Families of the World Fig. 5-11: Distribution of the world’s main language families. Languages with more than 100 million speakers are named.

Major Language Families % of World Popula. The % of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European & Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the world’s people.

Chinese Ideograms Chinese language ideograms mostly represent concepts rather than sounds (is not phonetic). The 2 basic characters at the top can be built into more complex words.

Language Families of Africa 1,000 or more lang.’s of Africa divided among 5 main lang. families, including Austronesian lang.’s in Madagascar.

Languages of Nigeria More than 200 lang.’s are spoken in Nigeria, the largest country in Africa (by pop.). English, considered neutral, is the official language .

Language Divisions in Belgium Are tensions in Belgium between Flemings , in the north who Speak Flemish, a Dutch dialect, & Walloons in the south…& speak French

Language Areas in Switzerland Switzerland remains peaceful w/ 4 official languages & a decentralized government structure.

French-English Boundary in Canada Though Canada is bilingual, French speakers are concentrated in the Québec, where 80% of the ppl. speak French.

Internet: Encourages further globalization of English Fig. 5-1-1: A large proportion of the world’s internet users and hosts are in the developed countries of North America & western Europe.

Internet Hosts by Language The large majority of internet hosts in 1999 used English, Chinese, Japanese , or European languages .

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