Bold words are essential vocabulary. You should know each of these terms before the end of the unit.
Italicized and underlined words are supplemental vocabulary that we will use in class. You should recognize these words and understand their meaning.

Italicized and underlined words are supplemental vocabulary that we will use in class. You should recognize these words and understand their meaning.

Organelles

All living things are made of cells. Cells are the simplest level of biological organization. All cells have DNA as their genetic code. This code contains the instructions for how to make the cell. Some organisms simply let their DNA float loose in the cell, while others have a special organelle called the nucleus that contains the DNA. Eukaryotes are organisms that have a nucleus. However prokaryotes do not have a nucleus.

Other major organelles include:

  • Ribosomes are worker organelles that copy the information coded in the DNA and use build the proteins needed to make and run the cell.
  • The Cell Membrane is the squishy barrier that controls what gets in and out of the cell
  • Cytoplasm is the jelly filling inside all cells that the organelle float in.
  • The Cell Wall is the hard, rigid outer layer that surrounds most organisms (but not animals). The cell wall provides support and protection like an exoskeleton or armor.
  • Chloroplasts are membrane-bound organelles (organelles that have their own cell membrane) that capture sunlight and use it to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen gas. These are only found in eukaryotes.
  • Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles (organelles that have their own cell membrane) that burn sugar and oxygen together to release energy stored in the sugar. carbon dioxide and water are produced as a byproduct. These are only found in eukaryotes.
  • Vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles (organelles that have their own cell membrane) that store food, water or waste. These are only found in eukaryotes, however in plants there is usually just one large vacuole used to store water.

You are watching: Cells. Info created by GBee English Center selection and synthesis along with other related topics.