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Cells and Energy

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Energy for most living things comes from food.
The energy in food comes from the sun.

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Organisms that can use light energy from the sun to produce food are called autotrophs (auto = self)
Example: Plants & Algae

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Organisms that cannot make their own food are called heterotrophs
Ex: animals and most microorganisms

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A SPECIAL KIND of MOLECULE used by cells to store and transport
Energy is called ATP Adenosine triphosphate ATP = __________________________

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ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell processes
3 phosphate groups

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All energy is stored in the bonds of food molecules—breaking the bond releases the energy
When the cell has energy available it can store this energy by adding a phosphate group to a molecule called ADP. = ATP

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ADP Adenosine diphosphate ADP = __________________________

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When the cell needs energy, the last phosphate bond is broken.
A burst of energy is released. ATP converts back to ADP. ADP ATP = ____ + ____

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It’s like recharging a battery !
Energy is replaced when the phosphate is added back to ADP to make ATP again. The energy to do this comes from foods like _____________ GLUCOSE It’s like recharging a battery !

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Photosynthesis: The Technical Definition
Photosynthesis is the process by which the energy of sunlight is converted into the energy of glucose or sugar.

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS

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Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of plants

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Plants gather the sun’s energy with light absorbing molecules called ___________.
pigments

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The pigment that absorbs light for photosynthesis is called chlorophyll

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EXPERIMENTS TO FIND OUT
1961- American chemist ________________________ received the Nobel prize for figuring out the chemical _______________ used by plants to make sugar Melvin Calvin pathway

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These experiments led to the discovery of photosynthesis!

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General formula for photosynthesis
carbon dioxide + water + light glucose + oxygen 6CO H2O + light C6H12O O2 OR

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS: Reactants & Products
LIGHT ENERGY Sugar + oxygen Carbon dioxide & water

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS: Reactants & Products
LIGHT ENERGY Reactants Products 6CO2 + 6H2O SUGAR + 6O2

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS HAS TWO PARTS
Oxygen PRODUCED Light & Water Light-Dependent Reaction ATP MADE Carbon Dioxide Sugar produced Light-Independent Reactions CALVIN CYCLE

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Light dependent reactions (Needs light)
Energy from sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll. H2O is broken down and Oxygen is released Energy in the form of ATP is made

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Light-independent reactions (Does NOT Need light)
Carbon dioxide CO2 gas from the atmosphere is taken in by the plant The energy made in the light-dependent reactions is used to make glucose or sugar from the carbon in the CO2.

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The light independent reaction is also called the Calvin Cycle

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THE BIG PICTURE sugars PHOTOSYNTHESIS provides
the _____________ we breathe and the __________ heterotrophs (like us) consume to survive OXYGEN sugars Carbon dioxide Sugars WATER Oxygen _____________ + ____________ _______________ + ____________

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Photosynthesis video clip

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Question What is an example of an autotroph?

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Answer Tree, plant

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Question What is an example of a heterotroph?

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Answer Human, animal

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Question Energy is released from ATP when

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Answer a phosphate group is removed

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Question What is used in the overall reactions for photosynthesis?

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Answer Carbon dioxide, light, and water

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Question Most plants appear green because chlorophyll…….

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Answer Chlorophyll does not absorb green light-it reflects it

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Question What are the products of light-dependent reactions?

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Answer Oxygen gas and ATP

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Question If carbon dioxide is removed from a plant’s environment, what would you expect to happen to its production of high-energy sugars?

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Answer No sugars will be produced.

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Question Plants take in the sun’s energy by absorbing….

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Answer sunlight

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Question The Calvin cycle is another name for…..

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Answer light –independent reactions

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION

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In the last lesson we learned that autotrophs such as green plants
use photosynthesis to trap energy from sunlight to make food/sugar.

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In this lesson, we will learn how this glucose is broken down by organisms and the energy
is stored as ATP in a process called Cellular Respiration

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Cellular Respiration: The Technical Definition
Cellular respiration is the process by which the energy of glucose is released in the cell to be used for life processes (movement, breathing, blood circulation, etc…)

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Cells require a constant source of energy for life processes but keep only a small amount of ATP on hand. Cells can regenerate ATP as needed by using the energy stored in foods like glucose. The energy stored in glucose by photosynthesis is released by cellular respiration and repackaged into the energy of ATP.

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Aerobic cellular respiration
The chemical equation for aerobic cellular respiration is

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Why does this formula look so familiar?

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Because… The products in Photosynthesis are the same
as the reactants in Cellular Respiration.

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The reactants in photosynthesis are the same as the products of cellular respiration.

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Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration occurs in all cells.
It can take place with (aerobic) or without (anaerobic) the presence of oxygen.

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Aerobic Cellular Respiration
Aerobic cellular respiration requires oxygen. Occurs in the mitochondria of the cell Total of 36 ATP molecules produced

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Video clip – Cellular Respiration

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Anaerobic Respiration: occurs when no oxygen is available to the cell (2 kinds: Alcoholic and Lactic Acid) Also called fermentation Much less ATP produced than in aerobic respiration

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Alcoholic fermentation—occurs in bacteria and yeast
Process used in the baking and brewing industry—yeast produces CO2 gas during fermentation to make dough rise and give bread its holes glucose ethyl alcohol + carbon dioxide + 2 ATP

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Yeast + glucose = ethanol + CO2 gas + 2 ATP

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Lactic acid fermentation—occurs in muscle cells
Lactic acid is produced in the muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the tissues—causes burning sensation in muscles glucose lactic acid + carbon dioxide + 2 ATP

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QUIZ REVIEW

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Question What are the products of the Calvin Cycle or light independent reactions of photosynthesis?

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Answer The Calvin Cycle uses ATP to produce high energy sugars.

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Question What is the overall equation for photosynthesis in both symbols and words?

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Answer

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Question If carbon dioxide is removed from a plant’s environment, what would you expect to happen to its production of high-energy sugars?

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Answer No sugars will be produced.

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Question What are the products of light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?

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Answer Oxygen gas and ATP

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Question Energy is released from ATP when a ___________ group
is removed.

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Answer a phosphate group is removed

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What is released during cellular respiration?

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Energy! (ATP)

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Cellular respiration releases energy by the breakdown of __________
food

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How are cellular respiration and photosynthesis almost opposite processes?
Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and cellular respiration puts it back.

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Where does photosynthesis happen?
Where does cellular respiration happen?

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