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AP Human Geography Theoretical Model Review
Mr. Stepek

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Unit 7: Services and Urban Patterns

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Central Place Theory (Christaller)
Cities, towns, villages and hamlets are nested in an urban hierarchy reflecting that the largest central place provides the greatest number of functions. Distribution of cities is tied to trade areas, population size and distance. Hinterland Threshold Range Hexagon Rank-size rule Primate city rule (breaks theory)

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FIGURE 12-21

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FIGURE 12-16

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Borchert’s Epochs refer to 5 distinct periods in American urbanization. Sail-Wagon Epoch (1790–1830); waterways, canals, gateway cities Steamboat-Iron Horse Epoch (1830–70), characterized by impact of steam engine technology, and development of steamboats and regional railroad networks; Steel Rail Epoch (1870–1920), dominated by the development of long haul railroads and a national railroad network; Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch (1920–70), with growth in the gasoline combustion engine; Satellite-Electronic-Jet Propulsion (1970–?), also called the High-Technology Epoch.

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North American Urban Models
Burgess Concentric Zone Hoyt Sector Zone Model As cities grow, circular zones defined by their function surround the CBD. Bid-rent theory Affects land use, density, housing and social class Urban zones stretch form the CBD in wedges with similar functions extending out to the city’s outer edge. transportation amenities

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North American Urban Models
Harris & Ullman Multiple Nuclei Model P.O. Muller Urban Realms Models related to peripheral/galactic model Edge cities/boomburbs on ring highway Greenfields = planned Uptowns = replace older areas Multi-centered metropolis consisting of independent realms CBD loses dominance as several functional nodes develop (airport = transportation, university = education, etc.)

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World City Network (Lang & Taylor)
Cities provide different services and functions in a global or regional economy FIGURE 12-26

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Classical Models of Urban Structure

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Peripheral/Galactic Model

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Southeast Asian City Model
LDC Urban Models McGhee Southeast Asian City Model Similar land use patterns among medium-size cities Proof of world systems model with port as focus of an raw material export-based economy Alien sector = proof of Chinese migration

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Latin American City Model
LDC Urban Models Griffin/Ford Latin American City Model Unique urban development. CBD stretches along blvd from central plaza, elite live along spine, squatter settlements on outskirts. Elements of sector model in spine

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African City Model Reflect colonial legacy fast growing three CBDs
ethnic neighborhoods fast growing Shantytowns megacities

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Services and Urban Patterns FRQ Sample #1

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Services and Urban Patterns FRQ Sample #1 Rubric

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Services and Urban Patterns FRQ Sample #1 Rubric

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