AP HUG Test Review with answers included

School: Cypress High School (California)

Subject: AP Human Geography

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AP Human Geography Chapter 8: Political Geography

Here are some questions it would be wise to know for the unit exam.

1. Be able to explain the difference between a nation and a state. What is a city-state, a nation-

state, and a multinational state? What is sovereignty? What is a stateless nation? What is the

only landmass on the planet that no state has a legal claim to?

2. Describe colonialism and imperialism and how they led to the development of European

empires around the globe. What is decolonization and when did it occur in Latin America and in

Asia and Africa? What is a buffer state?

3. What is state morphology? What are large and small states (in terms of land area) referred to

as? What is a compact state, fragmented state, elongated state, perforated state, prorupted

state, enclave, exclave, and landlocked state. How can the shape of a state cause unique

problems for it?

4. Explain the difference between a boundary and a frontier? What are the two major categories

of boundaries that divide nations?

5. What are the three steps in the process of two nations accepting a boundary and putting it on

the map?

6. Describe types of physical boundaries.

7. What are three different kinds of cultural boundary types that exist?

8. What are maritime boundaries and how have they been generally determined in modern times?

9. Describe the four historical classifications of boundaries by famous Political Geographer Richard

Hartshorne (Antecedent, Consequent, Superimposed, Relic).

10. Describe the following four types of boundary disputes between nations: Definitional,

Locational, Operational, and Allocational.

11. What is supranationalism? What is an example of a global (supranational) organization? What

are examples of a regional economic organization? What are examples of a regional military


12. What is devolution and what forces tend to speed up the process in states. Give an example of

each. How does democratization play a role in the spread of devolution?

13. What is irredentism?

14. Know what geopolitics is and be able to describe the following geopolitical theories and the

person who is responsible for each: Seapower Doctrine, Organic Theory, Heartland Theory,

Rimland Theory, World-System Theory.

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