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American Foreign Policy

5 GOALS of American Foreign Policy
National Security – Keep Americans safe Free and Open Trade – Preserve access to natural resources & world markets World Peace – Work for world peace Democratic Governments – Promote the spread of democracy Concern for Humanity – Provide help for less developed countries, disaster victims and refugees from war, famine & disease

Tools of Foreign Policy
Military Force: Limited war, specific goals Military Treaties and Alliances: Mutual Defense Agreements Foreign Aid: Loans, food, medical care Economic Sanctions: economic penalties applied by one nation or group of nations on another for economic, political or other reasons Most Favored Nation status: Trade w/out tariffs or barriers

Types of Economic Sanctions
Embargo – an order prohibiting trade with another nation Quota – The limit on the quantity of a product that may be imported Tariff – a list or system of duties imposed by a gov’t on imported or exported goods

Foreign Policy Roles: President:
Chief Diplomat – Power to make treaties with other countries Negotiate Treaties – Agreements with other nations Ex: End conflicts, form alliances, or trade relationships Must be approved by the Senate Executive Agreements – Agreement b/w heads of nation Carries weight of treaty, but does not require Senate approval Still subject to judicial review Diplomatic Recognition Formally identify the legitimacy of a foreign government

Foreign Policy Roles: President:
2. Commander in Chief – Can send troops anywhere in world Consult with Congress before and during possible armed conflict involving U.S. Must report to Congress within 48 hours of sending troops to explain reasons why Forces must be withdrawn within days if Congress does not declare war

Foreign Policy Roles: Foreign Policy Advisors:
Secretary of State – maintains relationships with foreign countries Secretary of Defense – supervises military activities National Security Advisor – recommends a course of action for President Congress: Power to declare war Power to appropriate money (fund wars) Ratify treaties (Senate)

Four advantages the President has over Congress in conducting foreign policy
Presidents position as the leader of the nation President controls those agencies that help formulate and carry out foreign policy President can make quick decisive action President uses executive agreements

History of American Foreign Policy:
, , Isolationism – U.S. Avoids involvement in world affairs – Imperialism – U.S. acquires territories (Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, Puerto Rico) World War I World War II – Cold War & Containment – U.S. attempts to stop the spread of Communism – Detente – U.S. tries to ease tensions with Soviet Union – After the fall of communism, U.S. becomes only world power, tries to spread freedom and democracy 2001-Present –War on Terror

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