Ethnologue, which is quoted throughout this chapter, is an authoritative sources of languages. It estimates of the world has 6,909 languages. Only 11 of these languages, including English, are spoken by at least 100 million people

Mandarin is one of six official languages in the U.N.

FIGURE 5-3 LANGUAGE FAMILY TREE Language families with at least 10 million speakers according to Ethnologue are shown as trunks of trees. Some language families are divided into branches and groups. Individual languages that have more than 5 million speakers are shown as leaves. Below ground level, the language tree’s “roots” are shown, but these are speculative because they predated recorded history.
FIGURE 5-4 SHARE OF EACH LANGUAGE FAMILY The chart shows the percentage of people who speak a language from each major family.

FIGURE 5-5 DISTRIBUTION OF LANGUAGE FAMILIES Most language can be classified into one of a handful of language families.

FIGURE 5-8 AFRICA’S LANGUAGE FAMILIES More than 1,000 languages have been identified in Africa, and experts do not agree on how to classify them into families, especially languages in central Africa. Languages with more than 5 million speakers are named on the map. The great number of languages results from at least 5,000 years of minimal interaction among the thousands of cultural groups inhabiting the African continent. Each group developed its own language, religion, and other cultural traditions in isolation from other groups.

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