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1.What is the most important part of a Latin American city? Why? 2.What is in the periphery of Latin American cities? 3.What is the difference between a formal and an informal economy? 4.What is the disamenity section of this model? 5.How is this model different from Burgess’s model? 6.How is an African city model different from other city models? 7.How is an Asian city model different from other urban models?

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Squatter Settlements Areas without basic infrastructure on the fringes of some urban areas in LDC’s

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Why squatter settlements? Rural to urban migration LDC’s do not have the resources to provide basic infrastructure in impoverished areas

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Warm up! 1.Pick up the packet on your way in and answer the 1 st page.

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Economic Functions of Cities and Models of Urban Systems Unit 10: Urban Geography

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urban systems Cities aren’t like isolated islands. They’re interconnected to other cities by trade and arranged in space logically to perform specific jobs.

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basic function / basic industry Industry that exports goods and services to customers living outside the urban area Brings money into an urban place from outside – (remember BBIM: Basic Brings In Money) Examples – Pittsburgh – steel mills – Detroit & Flint, MI – auto plants – New York – Wall Street

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non-basic function / non-basic industry Industry that sells goods and services primarily to the city’s residents (your less specialized businesses) Shift money within the city Support basic industries, but not the most important industries for the city overall Examples – grocery store – plumber

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Basic functions create more jobs than non-basic functions Basic jobs have a multiplier effect – one new basic job generates additional nonbasic jobs. – E.g. A new movie production company creates new nonbasic jobs like carpenters, hair stylists, and costume makers. – Nonbasic jobs don’t create basic jobs Growing cities usually have successful basic industries

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central place theory (Christaller’s model) Explains how economic functions drive the locational patterns of cities across space. Translate! 3 main ideas: – Central places serve Hinterlands – Thresholds – Ranges

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1. Central places provide goods and services to their hinterlands Central place – A city or town that provides goods and services to residents of surrounding areas. Hinterland – Areas surrounding central places that depend on goods and services sold in a central place. Examples – Hinterland for a city is a town. – Hinterland for a town is smaller villages and hamlets

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2. Thresholds Industries have thresholds, the minimum number of people necessary before a good or service can be provided in an area

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3. Ranges Goods and services have ranges, the maximum distance a customer is willing to travel to get the good. – Corner store? – BMW dealership?

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High-order vs. low-order goods The more unique and specialized an economic function is, the higher its threshold and range. High-order goods or services – required infrequently – specialized (rare) – large threshold (will go out of business in a small town) – large range Low-order goods or services – required frequently – not specialized (easy to provide) – Small threshold – small range

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High order, or low order?

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Urban hierarchy Cities can be ranked by size – few large cities – many smaller cities Lowest in hierarchy: – Not many higher order good – Small thresholds and ranges Highest in hierarchy: – Highest threshold – Highest range – Lots of high order goods Because they have high range and thresholds, big cities have to be spread out they have to be spread out

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Christaller’s Model

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Hierarchy on a national scale Cities that expand their central place functions to larger market area may grow and move up the urban hierarchy. Example – population shifted from manufacturing belt to the U.S. southeast and southwest over the last 30 years – brought new wealth and population – Caused increased demand for goods and services – Phoenix, Atlanta, Dallas, and Houston produced goods and services for their regions’ hinterlands – These cities grew and moved up the urban hierarchy.

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Rank-size rule Rank in a country’s urban hierarchy is connected to its population size. The second-ranking settlement is half the population size of the largest city, the third- ranking settlement is half the second, etc. Ranked 1 st Ranked 2 nd Third largest 50 million 25 million 12.5 million 200 million ???

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Primate city an urban center that is more than twice as large as the second largest city in a country – (don’t follow rank-size rule) dominates the country’s social, political, and economic activities. Common in formerly colonized LDCs Examples – London, Paris – Lagos, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Managua, Cairo

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Which fits: rank-size rule or primate city model?

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Rank-size rule or primate city? Paris:11,174,7439 Lyon: 1,648,2161 Aix-en-Provence1,516,3401

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Rank size rule or primate? New York: 8.4 million Los Angeles: 3.89 million Chicago: 2.7 million Houston: 2.196 million

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megacities Have high levels of power and influence within their countries’ economies – not much influence globally Massive: more than 10 million inhabitants – Beijing, Cairo, Mexico City, Jakarta.

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Gravity model of settlement geography It argues that – (1) larger places attract people more than smaller places – (2) people are more likely to move to places closer to them than to faraway places (distance decay). Helps explain growth of megacities Sound familiar?

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Pictionary! 1.Squatter Settlement/Favela 2.Urban System 3.Basic function/industry 4.Non-basic function/industry 5.Central Place Theory/Christaller’s Model 6.Hinterland 7.Edge City 8.Commuter 9.Sustainability 10.Threshold 11.Range 12.High Order Good 13.Low Order Good 14.Rank-size rule 15.Primate city 16.World City 17.Megacity 18.Harris and Ullman Multiple Nuclei Model 19.Burgess Concentric Zone Model 20.Hoyt Sector Model

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